Pharmaceuticals Packing Notes pdf


Pharmaceutical Packing

Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Package labeling or labeling is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label.

Types of packaging:
There are two types of packaging-
1.     Primary packaging.
2.     Secondary packaging.

1-PRIMARY PACKAGING:-

It is the packing which is in contact with medicament (capsule or tablet).

a)    Blister packaging:-
·        In this PVC and Al Foil is used for packaging.
·        Sometimes Al foil is used wholly for packaging-
§  Thickness of Al foil = 0.025mm ± 10%.
§  Thickness of PVC = 0.25 mm ±10%.
·        The blister package is formed by heat- softening a sheet of thermoplastic resin and vacuum drawing the softened sheet of plastic into a contoured mold.
·        Blister packaging machine consist of-
§  Feeder (vibrator).
§  A guide track.
§  A forming dies.
§   Forming heater.
§  Sealing heater.
§  Cutter.
§  Printing registration controller.
                                                           
TEMPRATURE:-
§  Forming heater = 140º-170º C.
§  Sealing heater = 170º-200º C.

b)    Strip packaging:-
The strip package is form by feeding to webs of a heat sealable flexible film through either a heated crimping roller or a heated reciprocating platen. In this the product is drop into the pocket formed prior to forming the final set of seals.

Machine:-
·        It consist of –
§  Hopper.
§  Disc.
§  Channel (chute).
§  Two rollers (for Al foil).
§  Cutter (center cutter).
§  Conveyer belt.
§  Thermostat.
§  Selector.
·        When primary (strip & blister) packaging is done. The strips & blisters are subject for secondary packaging.
                                                         
2-SECONDARY PACKAGING:-
It is the packaging which is in contact with the primary packaging.
It involved –
·        Cartoons (printed).
·        Corrugated boxes (CB).
·        White board box.
·        Corrugated boxes consist of 3 ply or 5 ply or 7 ply as per requirement.
·        When secondary packaging is complete a BOPP tape (Bio Oriented Poly Propylene Tape) is use for sticking.


The purposes of packaging and package labels
Packaging and package labeling have several objectives:
Physical protection - The objects enclosed in the package may require protection from, among other things, shock, vibration, compression, temperature, etc.
Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often required. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or Oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, and safe for the intended shelf life is a primary function.
Containment or agglomeration - Small objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pencils requires less physical handling than 1000 single pencils. Liquids, powders, and granules need containment.
Information transmission - Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product. With pharmaceuticals, food, medical, and chemical products, some types of information are required by governments.
Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Package design has been an important and constantly evolving phenomenon for several decades. Marketing communications and graphic design are applied to the surface of the package and (in many cases) the point of sale display.
Convenience - Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, reclosing, use, and reuse.
Portion control - Single serving or single dosage packaging has a precise amount of contents to control usage. Bulk commodities (such as salt) can be divided into packages that are a more suitable size for individual households. It is also aids the control of inventory: selling sealed one-liter-bottles of milk, rather than having people bring their own bottles to fill themselves.

Packaging machines
A choice of packaging machinery includes, technical capabilities, labor requirements, worker safety, maintainability, serviceability, reliability, ability to integrate into the packaging line, capital cost, flexibility (change-over, materials, etc.), energy usage, quality of outgoing packages, qualifications (for food, pharmaceuticals, etc.), throughput, efficiency, productivity,

Packaging machines may be of the following general types:
• Blister packs, skin packs and Vacuum Packaging Machines.
• Bottle caps equipment, Over-Capping, Lidding, Closing, Seaming and Sealing Machines.
   Cartooning Machines.
   Box, Case and Tray Forming, Packing, Unpacking, Closing and Sealing Machines.
    Cleaning, Sterilizing, Cooling and Drying Machines.
    Conveyors, Accumulating and Related Machines.
    Feeding, Orienting, Placing and Related Machines.
    Filling Machines: handling liquid and powdered products.
    Package Filling and Closing Machines.
    Form, Fill and Seal Machines.
    Inspecting, Detecting and Checkweigher Machines.
    Palletizing, Depalletizing, Unit load assembly.
    Product Identification: labeling, marking, etc.
    Wrapping Machines.






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