Pharmaceutical dosage forms notes pdf


Pharmaceutical Dosage Form


Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients. It is also called the science of dosage form design.


A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.

In Pharmacology Drug is a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being.

Dosage forms are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which drug molecules are delivered to sites of action within the body, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components.

Need of Excipients:

  1. To give particular shape to the formulation.
  2. To increase stability
  3. To increase palatability and give more elegance to the preparation.

Need of Dosage form:

  1. To protect the drug substance from oxidation, hydrolysis and reduction. Eg: Coated Tablet.
  2. To protect the drug from the destructive effect of gastric juice of the stomach after oral administration. Eg: Enteric Coated Tablet.
  3. To provide a safe and convenient delivery of accurate dosage.
  4. To mask the bitter taste and bad odour of a drug.
  5. To provide optimum drug action through various routes of administration. Eg: Ophthalmic, Transdermal, Parenteral, Nasal,
  6. To provide delayed release of the drug. Eg: Sustained or controlled release dosage form

Type of Dosage form:




§  Lozenges

§  Chewable Tablets

§  Modified Release Tablets

§  Effervescent Tablets etc

·         CAPSULE

§  Hard gelatin Capsule

§  Soft Gelatin Capsule

2.       BULK

·         INTERNAL

§  Fine Powder

§  Granules and Effervescent Granules

·         EXTERNAL

§  Dentifrices (Tooth Powder)

§  Ear Powder

2. Liquid Dosage from

1.       Biphasic

·         Liquid in Liquid

§  Emulsions

·         Solid in liquid

§  Suspensions

2.       Monophasic

·         Internal

§  Syrups

§  Elixures

§  Linctus

§  Drops

·         External

§  Liniments

§  Lotions

§  Gargles

§  Throat Paints

§  Mouth Washes

§  Sprays

§  Eye Lotions

§  Eye Drops

§  Nasal Drops

·         Parenteral 

3.       Semisolid Dosage from

·        Internal

·        External

§  Ointments

§  Creams

§  Pastes

§  Jellies

Pharmaceutical dosage forms notes pdf

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