Classification of Drugs from Natural Origin PDF Notes

 Classification of Drugs from Natural Origin

The crude drugs obtain from different natural sources are used in treatment of wide spectrum of diseases.

It is necessary to arrange them in scientific and systematic manner.

For pharmacogenetic study crude drugs can be arranged in one of the following class.

1. Alphabetical classification

2. Taxonomical classification

3. Morphological classification

4. Pharmacological classification

5. Chemical classification

6. Chemo taxonomical classification

1. Alphabetical classification:-

The Latin name or English name of drug are considered for this purpose of classification.

This classification is adopted by the following books.

1.  British Pharmacopoeia (English)

2.  British pharmaceutical codex (English)

3.  United States Pharmacopoeia (English)

4. Pharmacopoeia Internationalism (Latin)

5.  Indian Pharmacopoeia (English)

6. British herbal Pharmacopoeia (English)

• This type of classification does not help in distinguishing the drugs from plant, Animal or mineral Source and also does not indicate.

• They are organized or an organize.

2. Taxonomical classification:-

• It is the type of biological classification and restricted mainly to crude drugs from plant source.

• It indicates the phylum, class, subclass, order, family, and species of the crude drugs.

• Classified according to the plants and animals from which they are obtain.

Example: –

Phylum                                                Spermataphyta

Division                                                Angiosperms

Class                                                     Dicotyledons

Odour                                                  Rosales

Family                                                  Lequminosac

Sub Family                                          Papilonaceas

3. Morphological classification:-

• Grouped according to part of plant or animal represent into organized and unorganized drug.


Part of Plant          Drugs

Seeds                      Nutmeg, Linseed, Colchicum, Nux-vomica

Barks                      Arjuna, Cinchona, Kurchi, Cinnamon

Leaves                    Coca, Digitalis, Senna, Vasaka,

Flowers                   Clove, Rose, Saffron, Santonica

Gums                      Acacia, Tragacanth, Guar, Ghatti

Extracts                   Catechu, Agar, Gelatine

4. Pharmacological classification:-

• Grouped according to their chief constituents or their therapeutic uses.


Pharmacological       Example


Anti-cancer                    Vinca, Podophyllum, Taxus.

Anti-amoebic                 Kurchi, ipecacuanha.

Bitters                             Gentian, cinchona, nux-vomica

Carminatives                  Clove, Coriander, Caraway

Cardiotonics                   Digitalis, Squill, Strophanthus

Purgatives                      Senna, rhubarb, aloe

5. Chemical classification: –

• The chemical natural of their most important constituents.

Type of Chemical           Examples

Alkaloids                          Aconite, Tea, Vinca, Opium

Glycosides                        Senna, Digitalis, Aloe

Lipids                               Castor oil, Peppermint, Clove

Tannins                             Kino, Catechu, galls.

Vitamins                           Yeast, Cod-liver oil, Shark-liver oil. 

6. Chemotaxonomical classification:-

• Established a relationship between position of plant and chemical fact characters are flavonoids and alkaloids.

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