Introduction to Environment

 Introduction to Environment

The term environmental has been defined under section 2(A) of environment protection Act (1986) to include water, Air and human beings other living creature, plants microorganisms and property.

Definition of environment:- The term environment is used to describe in the aggregate all the external forces, influence and conditions, which affect the life nature behavior and the growth development and maturity of living organism.

Type of environment:- the environment may be divided into

•Physical/abiotic environment

•Biotic environment

•Cultural environment

1) Physical Environment

The basis of physical characteristics and state, abiotic or physical environment in subdivided into Solid (Lithosphere) Liquid (Hydrosphere) Gas (Atmosphere)

These environments can be termed as Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere environment which can be further broken into smaller units based on different spatial scales like:- Mountain environment, Plateau plain

The physical environment may also be viewed in terms of climate conditions providing contain suite of habits for biological communities like-Tropical temperature and polar environment etc.

2) Biotic environment

The organism work to form their social groups and organizations at several levels.

The organizations work to derive matter from the physical environment for their sustenance and development.

It may be pointed out that of all the organism man is the most skilled and civilization and social organization is most systematic.

It is significant to note that three aspects of man, physical, social and economic have different characteristics and function in the Biotic environment

It consists of flora and fauna including man as an important factor.

They decided into-

·         Floral environment

·         Faunal environment

Components of environment

The basic components of the environment are atmosphere or the Air, Lithosphere or the rocks and soil Hydrosphere or the water and the living components of the environment or the biosphere.

Atmosphere (ATM) the thick gaseous layer surrounding the earth. It spreads up to 300km above the earth surface.

A part from gases there are water vapor, industrial gases, dust and smoke particular in suspended state microorganism etc.

Lithosphere:- the core which is around 7000km in diameter and is situated at the earth's center. The mantle which environs the core and has a thickness of 2900km.

The crust floats on top of the mantle and is composed of basalt rich oceanic crust and granitic rich continental crust.

Hydrosphere:- the Hydrosphere include all water on or near earth surface and include oceans, lakes, rivers, clouds, soils, etc.

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