OPHTHALMIC PRODUCTS - PHARMACEUTICS II (Dispensing Pharmacy) D. Pharm 2nd year PDF Notes


Ophthalmic products are sterile preparations intended for application to the eye lids or installation into the space between the eye ball and the eye lids.


Classification: - These are classified as follows

1.      Eye drops

2.      Eye lotions

3.      Eye ointment

4.      Eye packs

5.      Eye discs

6.      Intra ocular dosage forms

1. Eye drops:

Eye drops are sterile aqueous or oily solutions or suspensions intended into the conjuctival sac.


Ideal characters of eye drops:

1.      They should be free from foreign particles.

2.      They should be free from pain and irritating effect

3.      They must be sterile at all time

4.      They must contain suitable preservatives

5.      They should be chemically stable

6.      All the eye drops must be isotonic with the lachrymal secretions


Containers: Eye drops are dispensed in glass or suitable plastic containers with a screw cap fitted with a rubber teat and glass dropper for easy application of the drops or the containers may be fitted with a nozzle from which the drops can be directly instilled into the eye.


Storage: Eye drops are stored in a closed sterile container.


Labelling: “For external use only” if irritation occurs dis-continues use.


2. Eye lotion:

Eye lotions or eye washes are sterile aqueous preparations used for washing the eye to remove the foreign particles and discharges from the eye.


Types of eye lotions:

Eye lotions are broadly classified into two types they are:


1.  Eye lotion containing anti-bacterial agents and used for eye infections. It can be used over a period of 1-7 days. Ex: Boric acid eye lotion.


2.  Eye lotion containing no anti bacterial agents and used for irritation purpose. It should be freshly prepared and used within 24-48 hours. Ex: - Nacl eye lotion.


Eye lotion should be sterile and isotonic with lachrymal tears. Sterilization may either be done by autoclaving or filtration. The lotion is applied to the eye by means of an eye bath and it allowed to run from the inner to the outer corner of the eye. NaHCo3 eye lotion is used for the first aid purpose in the treatment of acid burns. Nacl eye lotion is used for irritating the eye. These are simple preparation by dissolving the Nacl/Na HCo3 in purified water. These are sterilized by filtration and finally sterilizing by heating in autoclave in a container.


Containers: - Eye lotions are dispensed in coloured fluted bottles with screw cap.


Labelling: - For external use only, Not to be used after 24 hours or 7 days, Not to be diluted.


3. Eye ointment:

Eye ointment is defined as soft, sterile semi solid preparations containing medicaments intended for applications to the conjunctival sac or to the eye lid margin.


Eye ointment base: -

Eye ointment base contains the following ingredients they are.

Wool fat                          -10%

Liquid paraffin                 -10%

Yellow soft paraffin          -80%

Wool fat: It is used to produce emulsification of the aqueous solution and it promotes absorption of the medicament.

Liquid paraffin: It produces smooth consistency to the preparation so that application to the eye lids is easier.

Yellow soft paraffin: It acts as base white soft paraffin should not be used because it produces irritation.


Preparation of eye ointment:

1.      Melt Wool fat, Yellow soft paraffin on a water bath.

2.      Add Liquid paraffin.

3.      Filter through coarse filter paper placed in heated funnel.

4.      It is sterilised by dry heat method (160OC for 2 hrs).

5.      Incorporate the medicament with the eye ointment base.

6.      Pack in sterile containers.


White soft paraffin is not used in the preparation of ointment base because it is prepared by bleaching the yellow soft paraffin. Some of the bleaching agent may remain sticking to the base even after careful washing agent when used in the eye may leads to irritation. Wool fat is used in order to ensure satisfactory emulsification of the solution and helps in the absorption of active ingredients. Liquid paraffin is incorporated to reduce the viscosity of the base, so that it can be easily expelled from the collapsible tube and apply to the eye.


Storage: - Eye ointments are packed in small, sterilized collapsible tube of suitable metal or   plastic containers (multi dose container). Eye ointments are also packed in soft gelatin capsules (single dose container) with applicator tips.


Labelling: - “Sterile” “for external use only”


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