Pathology of Urine



Urine is the chief excretory fluid eliminated through kidney. Most of the waste products are eliminated through urine. Urine shows the presence of large number of organic & in-organic substances.

Normal Constituents of Urine

1. Urea: - It is main end product of protein metabolism. About 25-30gm of urea is excreted per 24 hrs.

2. Uric acid: - It is the end product of purine metabolism. About 0.7gm of acid excreted through urine per 24 hrs.

3. Creatinine:-

 It is the product of the breakdown of creatine. About 1.7gm of Creatinine is excreted through urine per 24 hrs.

Abnormal Constituents of Urine:

Substances  which  are  not  present  in  easily  detectable  amount  in  urine  of  normal healthy  individuals,  but present  in urine  under  certain  diseased  conditions  are  said  to be Abnormal or Pathological Constituents of urine.

The Abnormal Constituents are:-

1. Reducing sugars like glucose, fructose, lactose, and pentose.

2. Proteins like albumin, globulin.

3. Ketone bodies like Acetone, Acetoacetic acid, Beta - hydroxyl butyric acid.

4. Bile salts like sodium glycolate, sodium taracolate.

5. Bile pigments like bilurubin, biliverdin.

6. Blood

7. Pus

 for detailed PDF Notes click on Download button

Post a Comment