Schizophrenia - B. Pharma 2nd Semester Pathophysiology notes pdf








At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

         Identify the symptoms of Schizophrenia

         Explain the etiology of schizophrenia

         Describe the symptoms associated with schizophrenia

         Discuss the mechanism involved the development of schizophrenia


Psychotic disorder

Severe mental disorder in which thinking and emotion are so impaired that the individual is seriously out of contact with reality

Disturbance that last for at least 6 months or longer including 1 month of delusions, hallucination, disorganized speech, behavior or negative symptom

Types of Schizophrenia

Paranoid Schizophrenia

       Small delusions & hallucination

Dis organised/ Hebphrenic schizophrenia

       Confused & disorganized pattern of speech, thought & behavior

Catatonic schizophrenia

       Abnormal posture & movement

Undifferentiated schizophrenia

Residual schizophrenia

       No severity of symptoms 

Symptoms in Schizophrenia

       Positive symptoms

                                Excesses / bizarre additions to normal thoughts, emotions or behaviors

       Negative symptoms

                                Deficits in normal thoughts, emotions, or behaviors

       Cognitive dysfunction

                                Abnormalities in attention, working memory and executive function

Positive Symptoms

       Distortions or excesses of normal functioning

                – Delusions

                – Hallucinations

                – Disorganized thinking and speech

                – Inappropriate affect

        •     Positive symptoms are generally more responsive to treatment than negative symptoms

Negative Symptoms

       Introvert behaviour

       Thought disorder with irrational conclusion

       Garbled sentences

       Lack of motivation

       Poor socialization

       Emotional blunting

Types of Negative Symptoms

• Poverty of speech or Alogia

• Blunted and flat affect or Flat affect

• Loss of volition or Avolition

• Social withdrawal or Anhedonia

• Psychomotor symptoms or Catatonia

Etiology of Schizophrenia


       Imbalance of neurotransmitter in brain

       Brain damage

       Environmental influence

       Viral attack

Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia

       From dopaminergic symptoms

       Dopamine – inhibitory NT

       Precursor for adrenaline & NA

       Dopamine pathway involved in schizophrenia

      Mesolimbic dopamine pathway

      Mesocortic pathway

      Nigrastriatal pathway

       Increased activity of nigrostriatal region & mesolimbic

       Decreased activity of mesocortical tract

       Overfiring of neurons


       Serotonergic pathway also involved


       Severe mental disorder in which thinking and emotion are so impaired that the individual is seriously out of contact with reality

       Symptoms of schizophrenia are categorized as primary, secondary and cognitive dysfunction

       Pathogenesis of schizophrenia is due to the imbalance and over excitation of certain NT

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