Tuberculosis - B. Pharma 2nd Semester Pathophysiology notes pdf






       Preventive measures


At the end of this Lecture, student will be able to

       Discuss the etiology of tuberculosis

       Explain the pathophysiology of tuberculosis


       Chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

       Usually affects lungs

       Organism is a strict aerobe and thrives best in tissues with  high oxygen tension such as in the apex of the lung

Risk factors

       Person’s whose immune system is weakened  (HIV infected people)

       Alcohol or drug abuse

       Diabetic persons

       Regular contact with TB infected persons

       Multidrug resistance TB occurs if Patients do not complete the course of antibiotic therapy

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

       Persistent cough for 15 days

       Fever, Chest pain, haemoptysis, dyspnoea, night sweats, tiredness, loss of apetite, rapid weight loss, swollen glands, signs of pneumonia

       Joint pain

       TB of GIT -  abdominal pain

       TB in brain  - altered mental status, headache, confusion and coma

       Weakness due to anemia, backpain, paralysis

Mode of transmission of Tuberculosis

       Inhalation of organisms present in fresh cough droplets or in dried sputum from an open case of pulmonary tuberculosis

       Ingestion of the organisms

       Development of tonsillar or intestinal tuberculosis

       Mode of infection of human tubercle bacilli

       Ingestion of bovine tubercle bacilli from milk of diseased cows

       Inoculation of the organisms into the skin

       Transplacental route

       Development of congenital tuberculosis in foetus from infected mother

       Rare mode of transmission

Spread of tuberculosis

       Local spread: macrophages carrying the bacilli into the surrounding tissues

       Lymphatic spread:

       Infection of lymphoid tissues

       Bacilli pass into lymphoid follicles of pharynx, bronchi, intestines or regional lymph nodes

       Regional tuberculous lymphadenitis

       Haematogenous spread

       Result of tuberculous bacillaemia

       Drainage of lymphatics into the venous system or due to caseous material

       Escaping through ulcerated wall of a vein

       Millet seed-sized lesions in lungs, liver, kidneys, bones and other tissues

       Known as miliary tuberculosis.

Primary disease

       An initial infection with bacilli

       In areas of high TB prevalence – this form of disease is often seen in children

       Frequently localized to the middle and lower lobes of the lungs

       Lesions – calcified nodule (Ghon lesion)

Secondary TB

       Adult type, reactivation, or secondary TB - endogenous reactivation of latent infection

       Localized to the apical and posterior segments of the upper lobes

       Oxygen consumption favors mycobacterial growth

       Extent of lung parenchymal involvement varies greatly, from small infiltrates to extensive cavitary disease


       Tuberculosis is an granulomatous and infectious disorder that will typically occur in the lung called pulmonary tuberculosis and if it occurs for other organs it’s called extra pulmonary tuberculosis

       Tubercle bacillus or Koch’s bacillus or  Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis in the lungs and other tissues of  human body by hematogenous, lympahtic or transplacental route

Post a Comment