Study of Bacteria

Study of Bacteria


       Morphological classification of bacteria

       Structure of bacterial cell

       Study of bacterial


      Pili and fimbriae


      Cell wall

      Cell membrane


      Cytoplasmic contents



      Inclusion bodies and types

Intended Learning objectives

At the end of this lecture student will be able to

       Classify bacteria based on their morphology

       Reproduce the structure of a bacterial cell and identify the various parts

       Explain the significance of different bacterial structures

       Differentiate between gram positive and gram negative cells

       Explain the functions of different bacterial structures

       Explain the various inclusion bodies found in bacterial cytoplasm

       Explain bacterial spore formation and its significance


       Basic shapes of bacteria – cocci, rods, vibrio, spirilli

       Flagella – used in bacterial locomotion

       Parts of flagella – Basal body, hook, filament

       Flagella arrangement – monotrichous, amphitrichous, lophotrichous, peritrichous

       Axial filament – present in spirochetes

       Basic shapes of bacteria – cocci, rods, vibrio, spirilli

       Flagella – used in bacterial locomotion

       Pili and fimbriae – basically organs of adhesion

       Bacterial cell wall – gram positive and gram negative

       Major differences between gram positive and gram negative cell wall

Gram positive cell wall

Gram negative cell wall

Thick peptidoglycan

Thin  peptidoglycan


LPS present

Teichoic acid present

Teichoic acid absent

No periplasm

Periplasm present


       Plasma membrane – lipid bilayer membrane acts as a selective barrier for the entry and exit of materials

       Cytoplasm contains nucleoid (DNA), ribosomes (70s) and inclusion bodies

       Endospores are resting cells formed during unfavourable conditions

       Spores can survive extreme heat, lack of water, and exposure to many toxic chemicals and radiation

       Inclusions are reserve deposits

       Metachromatic Granules

       Polysaccharide Granules

       lipid Inclusions

       Sulfur Granules


       Gas Vacuoles


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