Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960

Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960


       Objectives, establishment, constitution and functions of Animal Welfare Board of India.

       CPSCEA guidelines. Procedures to be followed during animal experimentation. Offences and penalties

Learning objectives

At the end of this lecture, the student will be able to:

       Explain the objectives of the act

       Describe the constitution and functions of Animal Welfare Board of India

       Describe the constitution and functions of Animal experimentation committee

Short title, extent and commencement

(1) This Act may be called the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.

(2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. ,

(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different States and for the different provisions contained in this Act.

Objectives of the act

To prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals and for that purpose to amend the law relating to the prevention of cruelty to animals



For the promotion of animal welfare generally and for the purpose of protecting animals from being subjected to unnecessary pain or suffering

The different acts under this board are

  1. PCA (Slaughter House) Amendment Rules, 2010
  2. Draft Aquarium Fish Breeding Rules, 2010
  3. Draft Dog Breeding Rules 2010
  4. Revised Draft Pet Shop Rules, 2010
  5. Transport of Animals (Amendment) Rules, 2009
  6. Draft Animal Welfare Act, 2011
  7. Animal birth control(Dogs) Amendment Rules 2010



The Board shall consist of the following persons, namely:

(a) the Inspector General of Forests, Govt. of India, ex-officio,

(b) the Animal Husbandry Commissioner to the Govt. of India, ex-officio;

(c) two persons to represent respectively the Ministries of the Central Govt. dealing with Home Affairs and Education, to be appointed by the Central Govt;

(d) 1 person to represent the Indian Board for Wild Life, to be appointed by the Central Government;

(e) 3 persons who, in the opinion of the Central Government, are or have been actively engaged in animal welfare work and are well-known humanitarians, to be nominated by the Central Government;)

(f) 1 person to represent such association of veterinary practitioners as in the opinion of the Central Government ought to be represented on the Board, to be elected by that association in the prescribed manner;

(g) 2 persons to represent practitioners of modern and indigenous systems of medicine, to be nominated by the Central Government;

(h) 1 person to represent each of such two municipal corporations as in the opinion of the Central Government ought to be represented on the Board, to be elected by each of the said corporations in the prescribed manner

(i) 1 person to represent each of such three organizations actively interested in animal welfare as in the opinion of the Central Government ought to be represented on the Board, to be chosen by each of the said organizations in the prescribed manner;

(j) 1 person to represent each of such three societies dealing with prevention of cruelty to animal

(k) 3 persons to be nominated by the Central Government,

(l) 6 Members of Parliament, 4 to be elected by the House of the People (Lok Sabha) and two by the Council of States (Rajya Sabha).

The Central Government shall nominate one of the members of the Board to be its Chairman and another member of the Board to be its Vice-Chairman.

Reconstitution of the Board

          The Board as reconstituted under sub-section (1) shall be reconstituted from time to time on the expiration of every third year

           The new members shall hold office only for the unexpired portion of the term for which they would have held office if such reconstitution had not been made

          Vacancies arising as a result of their ceasing to be Members of the Board shall be filled up as casual vacancies for the remaining period of the term of the Board as so reconstituted

Term of office and conditions of service of Members of the Board

           The term of office of an ex-officio Member shall continue so long as he holds the office by virtue of which he is such a Member;

           The term of office of a Member elected or chosen shall come to an end as soon as he ceases to be a Member of the body which elected him or in respect of which he was chosen;

          The term of office of a Member appointed, nominated, elected or chosen to fill a casual vacancy shall continue for the remainder of the term of office of the member in whose place he is appointed, nominated, elected or chosen;

          The Central Government may, at any time, remove for reasons to be recorded in writing a member from office after giving him a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed removal and any vacancy caused by such removal shall be treated as casual vacancy for the purpose

Functions of the Board

          To keep the law in force in, India for the prevention of cruelty to animals under constant study and advise the Government on the amendments to be undertaken in any such law from time to time;

           To advise the Central Government on the making of rules under this Act with a view to preventing unnecessary pain or suffering to animals generally, and more particularly when they are being transported from one place to another or when they are used as performing animals or when they are kept in captivity or confinement

          To advise the Government or any local authority or other person on improvements in the design of vehicles so as to lessen the burden on draught animals

           To take all such steps as the Board may think fit for (amelioration of animals ) by encouraging or providing for, the construction of sheds, water-troughs and the like and by providing for veterinary assistance to animals:

          To advise the Government or any local authority or other person in the design of slaughter-houses or the maintenance of slaughter houses

          To  advise the Government regarding the  slaughter of animals so that unnecessary pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is eliminated in the pre-slaughter stages as far as possible, and animals are killed; wherever necessary, in as humane a manner as possible;

          To take all such steps as the Board may think fit to ensure that unwanted animals are destroyed by local authorities, whenever it is necessary to do so, either instantaneously or after being rendered insensible to pain or suffering.

          To encourage by the grant of financial assistance or otherwise, the formation or establishment of pinjra poles, rescue homes, animal shelters, sanctuaries and where animals and birds may find a shelter when they have become old and useless or when they need protection:

          To co-operate with, and co-ordinate the work of, associations or bodies established for the purpose of preventing unnecessary pain or suffering to animals or for the protection of animals and birds;

          To give financial and other assistance to animal welfare organisations functioning in any local area or to encourage the formation of animal welfare organisations in any local area which shall work under the general supervision and guidance of the Board;

           To advise the Government on matters relating to the medical care and attention which may be provided in animal hospital, and to give financial and other assistance to animal hospitals whenever the Board thinks it necessary to do so;

          To impart education in relation to the humane treatment of animals and to encourage the formation of public opinion against the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering to animals and for the promotion of animal welfare by means of lectures, books, posters, cinematographic exhibitions and the like;

          To advise the Government on any matter connected with animal welfare or the prevention of infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals.


          The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) is a statutory Committee, which is established under Chapter 4, Section 15(1) of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960

           India is one of the pioneering countries to institute Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act in 1960 whereas such Act was instituted in France in 1963 and in USA in 1966. 


The goal of these Guidelines is to promote the humane care of animals used in biomedical and behavioral research and testing with the basic objective of providing specifications that will enhance animal well-being, quality in the pursuit of advancement of biological knowledge that is relevant to humans and animals

The main functions of CPCSEA are:

  1. Registration of establishments conducting animal experimentation or breeding of animals for this purpose
  2. Selection and assignment of nominees for the Institutional Animal Ethics Committees of the registered establishments
  3. Approval of Animal House Facilities on the basis of reports of inspections conducted by CPCSEA
  4. Permission for conducting experiments involving use of animals
  5. Recommendation for import of animals for use in experiments
  6. Action against establishments in case of established violation of any legal norm/stipulation
  7. Conduct of Training Programmes for the Nominees of CPCSEA
  8. Conduct / Support of Conference / workshop on Animal Ethics


          2 members each from ICMR, ICAR, CSIR nominated by the central govt.

          2 members representing universities granting medical and veterinary degrees nominated by the central govt.

          1 member of the Lok Sabha and 1 of the Rajya Sabha to be elected by the houses respectively

          5 non- officials representing persons actively engaged in the promotion of animal welfare nominated by the central government


          Hon. Smt. Maneka Gandhi – drafted under chairperson, CPCSEA

          Mr. A.K.Joshi – Member Secretary, CPCSEA

Subcommittee members

          Dr. Manju Sharma – secretary, department of biotechnology


          Dr. Vasanth muthuswamy- Sr. DDG, Indian Council Of Medical Research

          Dr. Lal Krishna – ADG,(AH) ICAR, New Delhi

          Dr. S.S. Murugan – SGS India private limited, Chennai

Quarantine, stabilization and separation


Ø  Separation of newly received animals from those already in the facility until the health and possibly the microbial status of newly received animal have been determine.

Ø  A minimum duration of quarantine for small animal-1 week and for larger animal-6 week (acclimatization)

Ø  Physiologic, psychological and nutritional stabilization should be given before their use.

Ø   Duration of stabilization will depend on type and duration of animal transportation, and species of animal.


Ø  Physical separation of animal by species is recommended to prevent interspecies disease transmission and to eliminate anxiety and possible physiological and behavioural changes due to interspecies conflict.

Ø   Housing different species in separate room.

Ø   It shall be acceptable to house different species in the same room only if they have a similar pathogen status and are behaviourally compatible.

Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment and Control of disease

Ø  All animal should be observed for signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behaviour by animal house staff.

Ø   Animals that show signs of a contagious disease should be isolated from healthy animals in the colony.

Animal care and technical personnel

       Animal care require technical and husbandry support.

       Institution should employ people trained in laboratory animal or provide for both formal and on the job training to ensure effective implementation of the program.

Personal hygiene

Ø  Animal care staff maintain a high standard of personal cleanliness.

Ø  Clothing suitable for use in the animal facility should be supplied and laundered by the institution.

Ø  It acceptable to use disposable gear such as gloves, masks, head covers, coats, coveralls and shoe covers.

Ø  Person should change clothing as often as is necessary to maintain personal hygiene.

Ø  Personnel should not be permitted to eat, drink, smoke or apply cosmetic in animal rooms.

Multiple surgical procedures on single animal

Multiple surgical procedures on a single animal for any testing or experiment are not to be practiced unless specified in a protocol only approved by the IAEC.

Durations of experiments

No animal should be used for experimentation for more than 3 years unless adequate justification is provided.

Physical restraint

Ø  Restraint devices cannot be used simply as a convenience in handling or managing animals.

Ø  The period of restraint should be the minimum required to accomplish the research objectives.

Ø  Provision should be made for observation of the animal at appropriate  intervals

Physical relationship of animal facilities of laboratories

Ø  Animal shall be housed in an isolated building located as far away from human habitations as possible and not exposed to dust, smoke, noise, wild rodent, insects and birds.

Ø  This separation can be accomplished by having the animal quarters in a separate building, wing, floor or room.

Ø  The animal room should occupy about 50-60% of the total constructed area and the remaining area should be utilized for service such as stores, washing, office and staff, machine rooms, quarantine and corridors.

Ø  Since animals are very sensitive to environmental changes, sharp fluctuations in temperature, humidity, light, sound and ventilation should be avoided.


Ø  BUILDING MATERIALS- moisture-proof, fire-resistant, seamless materials are most desirable for interior surfaces including vermin and pest resistance.

Ø  CORRIDOR- wide enough to facilitate the movement of personnel as well as equipments and should be kept clean.

Ø  UTILITIES- water lines, drain pipes and electrical connection

Ø  ANIMAL ROOM DOORS- rust, vermin and dust proof. it properly within their frames and provided with an observation window.

Ø  FLOORS- smooth, moisture proof, non-absorbent, skid-proof, resistant to wear, acid, solvents, adverse effects of detergents and disinfectants. Capable of supporting racks, equipment and stored items without becoming gouged, cracked, or pitted.

Ø  DRAINS- floor drains are not essential in all rooms used exclusively for housing rodents.

Ø  WALLS & CEILINGS- free of cracks, unsealed utility penetrations, or imperfect junction with doors, ceilings, floors and corners.

Ø  STORAGE AREAS- separate storage areas should be designed for feed, bedding, cages and materials not in use.

Ø  FACILITIES FOR SANITIZING EQUIPMET AND SUPPLIES- an area for sanitizing cages and ancillary equipment is essential with adequate water supply.

Ø  EXPERIMENTAL AREA- should be carried out in a separate area from the place where animals are housed.



·         air conditioning

·         temperature with in the range of  64.4-84 o F

·         relative humidity- 30-70% throughout the year

·         for large animal comfortable zone-18-37˚c


·         the electrical system should be safe and provide appropriate lighting and a sufficient no. of power outlets.

·         A time control light system should be used.

Ø  NOISE CONTROL- noise free environment


Ø  Should be fed palatable, non-contaminated and nutritionally adequate food.

Ø  Feeders should allow easy access to food while avoiding contamination by urine and faeces.

Ø  Food should be available in amounts sufficient to ensure normal growth in immature animals and maintenance of normal body weight, reproduction and lactations in adults.

Ø  Areas in which diets are stored should be kept clean and enclosed to prevent entry of insects or other animals.

Ø  Diet should be free from heavy metals.


Ø  Fresh

Ø   Potable

Ø   Uncontaminated


The most preferred method of waste disposal is incineration. If wastes must be stored before removal , the waste storage area should be separated from other storage facilities and free of flies, cockroaches, rodents and other vermin. 


Programs designed to prevent, control, or eliminate the presence of or infestations by pests are essential in an animal environment


Animal should be cared for by qualified personnel every day, including weekends and holidays, to safeguards their well- being including emergency veterinary care.


Ø  Animal house plans

Ø  Animal house staff record

Ø  Health record of staff/animals

Ø  All SOPs relevant to the animals

Ø  Breeding, stock, purchase and sales records

Ø  Minutes of institute animals ethics committee meetings

Ø  Records of experiments conducted with the no. of animals used

Ø  Death record

Ø  Clinical record of sick animals training record of staff involved in animal activities

Ø  Water analysis report


Maintain SOPs describing procedures/ methods adapted with regard to animal husbandry, maintenance, breeding, animal house microbial analysis and experimentation record.

SOPs should contain following items-

Ø  Name of author

Ø  Title of SOP

Ø  Date of preparation

Ø  Reference of previous SOP on the same subject and date

Ø  Location and distribution of  SOPs with sign of each recipient

Ø  Objectives

Ø  Detailed information of the instruments used in relation with animals

Ø  Normal value of all parameters.


The main considerations for transport of animals are the mode of transport, the containers, the animal density in cages, food and water during transit, protection from transit infection, injuries and stress.


Ø  Sedatives, analgesics and anaesthetics should be used to control pain or distress under experiment

Ø   Before use actual anaesthetics the animals is prepared for anaesthesia by over night fasting and using pre-anaesthetics.

Ø  Local or general anaesthetics may be used depending on type of surgical procedure.


       The transgenic and knockout animal should be first euthanized and then disposed off as prescribed elsewhere in the guidelines

        A record of disposal and the manner of disposal should be kept as a matter of routine

       knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out," an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

       transgenic animal is one whose genome has been changed to carry genes from other species. The nucleus of all cells in every living organism contains genes made up of DNA. These genes store information that regulates how our bodies form and function

Procedures to be followed

          When the experiments are performed by the institutions, their heads shall be responsible for fulfilling the objectives  of the act

          Where individuals run any experiment on animals, they shall be individually responsible  for avoidance of cruelty

          The experiments should be performed while the animals are under the influence of an anesthetic and if the recovery of the animal involves serious suffering, it should be destroyed

          If possible use a small animal for an experiment and where possible replace animal with models, films, cell lines etc.

          The animals intended to be used for experiments should be properly  cared for before and after experiments and record of experiments performed should be maintained

Offences and penalties

          If any person contravens any conditions imposed by the committee, he may be punished with a fine extending upto Rs. 200


  1. The act was instituted in 1960 to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals and for that purpose to amend the law relating to the prevention of cruelty to animals
  2. The act includes committees like the Animal Welfare Board of India and CPCSEA
  3. CPCSEA: Committee for the Purpose of Control And Supervision of Experiments on Animals
  4. Committee supervises experimentation on animals
  5. Stipulates procedures to followed while carrying out experimentation on animals

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