Technology Development and Transfer - Industrial Pharmacy II B. Pharma 7th semester PDF Notes


Technology Transfer (TT or TOT)

Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the person or organization that owns or holds it to another person or organization

• Technology transfer is the process by which a developer of technology makes its technology available to a commercial partner that will exploit the technology

• In pharmaceutical industry, “technology transfer” refers to the processes of successful progress from drug discovery to product development, clinical trials and ultimately full-scale commercialization


Share skills, knowledge, technologies, manufacturing methods, samples, and facilities among the participants


To ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials, or services

Technology Transfer- between whom??

• Between universities

• Businesses (of any size, ranging from small, medium, to large)

• Governments, across geopolitical borders, both formally and informally, and both openly and secretly

TT- Pharmaceuticals

• “Technology transfer” refers to the processes of successful progress from drug discovery to product development, clinical trials and ultimately full-scale commercialization


• Technology transfer is the process by which the manufacturing process and analytical method are transferred from one manufacturing unit to another unit or from R&D to manufacturing unit

• Technology transfer from R&D to manufacturing site is critical because of the scale-up of the product from pilot batch to large-scale commercial batch

Importance of TT

• Commercialization of university-discovered technologies is a driver of economic growth and universities have played a major role in bringing innovative ideas and inventions to market

• TT can potentially generate revenues for universities, create research connections between academia and industry and enhance regional economic growth and development

• Therefore the development and transfer of knowledge and technology has been and will continue to be critical to success in all types of industries

Reasons for TT

1. Lack of manufacturing capacity: The developer of technology may only have manufacturing equipment which is suitable for small scale operation, and must collaborate with another organization to do large scale manufacturing.

2. Lack of resources to launch product commercially: The original inventor of technology may only have the resources to conduct early-stage research such as animal studies and toxicology study, but doesn’t have the resources to take technology through its clinical and regulatory phases

3. Lack of marketing and distribution capability: The developer of technology may have fully developed the technology and even have obtained regulatory approvals and product registrations, but it may not have the marketing and distribution channels

4. Exploitation in a different field of application: Each partner may have only half of the solution i.e. the developer of the technology might be capable of exploiting the technology itself in the field of diagnostic applications and may grant exploitation right to commercial partner for the exploitation of therapeutics application

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