Bhasma and Churna

Bhasma and Churna


       Definition of bhasma and churna

       Method of preparation of Bhasma and churna

       Characteristics of bhasma and churna


At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

       Define bhasma and churna

       Explain the method of preparation of Bhasma and churna


Bhasma is a powder of the substance obtained by calcination

Ø   Metal, mineral and animal products are calcinied in closed crucibles in pits with cow dung cakes by special process

Method of Preparation:




Ø   Sodhana is a purification process, it is a medicinal purification

Ø  Chemical purification eliminates only foreign matter, but Sodhana aims

        - To eliminate harmful matter from the drug

        - To modify undesirable physical characters of the drug

         - To enhance the therapeutic activity of the drug

Types of Sodhana:

Samanya sodhana : Heating of thin sheets of metals by immersing in   

                                     taila / gomutra

Visesa sodhana : Four types

Ø  Bhavana – Grinding with special decoctions

Ø  Svedana – Convert drug into a poultice

Ø  Nirvapana – Incinerating to red hot and dipping into taila

Ø  Mardana – Triturating /rubbing with some dravyas


Ø  Purified drug obtained from sodhana is placed in kalva

Ø  Ground with specified quantities of kasaya/swarasa

Ø  Resultant material is made into small cakes

Ø  Size and thickness of the cakes – Heaviness of the drug

Ø   Heavier the drug thinner are the cakes and vice versa

Ø  Cakes are dried and placed in a shallow earthen plate and closed with another

Ø  Edges are sealed with a clay smeared cloth in seven consecutive layers and again dried

Ø  A pit is dug in an open space

Ø  Half of the pit is filled with cow dung cakes

Ø  Earthen plates holding the cakes of metal/mineral is placed on cow dung cakes

Ø  Pit is then completely filled with cow dung cakes

Ø  Cow dung cakes are set fire all the four sides and also in the middle of the pit

Ø  After burning allowed to cool

Ø  Earthen plates are removed and seal is opened

Ø  Contents are ground again in kalva into a fine powder

Characters: Bhasma should comply the following

Ø  No metallic luster

Ø  Float on cold water

Ø  Not revert to original state

Ø  Very fine, so that it get easily to the finger lines when taken between index finger and thumb

Ø  No characteristic taste


Ø  Should be stored in airtight glass/earthen containers

Ø  Retain its potency indefinitely




Svarna bhasma


Rajata bhasma

Jvara, Buddhimandya




Churna is a fine powder of drug or drugs

Method of preparation:

Ø  Drugs are cleaned and dried properly

Ø  Finely powdered and sieved


Ø  When more than one drug, each drug is weighed separately according to the formula, powdered and sieved

Ø  As some drugs contain more fibrous matter, separate powdering, sieving and mixing is preferred

Ø  Certain drugs like  camphor, salt and sugar are to be powdered separately and mixed at the end

Ø  Drugs like asafoetida are roasted, powdered and mixed at the end

Ø  Drugs which are to be taken in the fresh conditions like satavari, guduchi etc are made in to paste, dried and then added to the rest


Ø  Should be a very fine powder of at least 80# sieve

Ø   Should not be sticky


Ø  Should be stored in airtight containers




Jataphaladya churna


Karpuradi churna

Svasa, ksaya


Ø  Bhasma – calcination process

Ø  Metal, mineral drugs

Ø  Sodhana and marana

Ø  Sodhana – medicinal purification, Bhavana, svedhana, nirvapana and mardana

Ø  Kalva, cakes, sealed with clay smeared cloth

Ø  Pit, cow dung cakes, fire, cool, grind into a fine powder

Ø  Churna – fine powder of drug/s, dried, sieved and finely powdered

Ø  Conditions for preparing churna

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