Biochemistry - B. Pharma 2nd Semester Notes Pdf


Scope: Biochemistry deals with complete understanding of the molecular levels of the chemical process associated with living cells.  The scope of the subject is providing biochemical facts and the principles to understand metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also emphasizing on genetic organization of mammalian genome and hetero & autocatalytic functions of DNA.

Objectives: Upon completion of course student shell able to

1.  Understand the catalytic role of enzymes, importance of enzyme inhibitors in design of new drugs, therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes.

2.  Understand the metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions.

3.  Understand the genetic organization of mammalian genome and functions of DNA in the synthesis of RNAs and proteins.

Course Content:



Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids and proteins.


Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy, enthalpy and entropy; Redox potential.

Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP


Carbohydrate metabolism

Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics and significance

Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance

HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency

Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD)

Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its significance

Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus

Biological oxidation

Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.

Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate phosphorylation

Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers level


Lipid metabolism

β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)

Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis

De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)

Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormone and vitamin D

Disorders of lipid metabolism:  Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and obesity.

Amino acid metabolism

General    reactions    of    amino    acid    metabolism:    Transamination, deamination & decarboxylation, urea cycle and its disorders

Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders (Phenyketonuria, Albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia)

Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline

Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice


Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer

Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides

Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease

Organization of mammalian genome

Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions DNA replication (semi conservative model) Transcription or RNA synthesis

Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors



Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes

Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot) Enzyme inhibitors with examples

Regulation of enzymes:  enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation

Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enz ymes and isoenzymes

Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions

BP 209 P. BIOCHEMISTRY (Practical)

1. Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates (Glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose and starch)

2. Identification tests for Proteins (albumin and Casein)

3. Quantitative analysis of reducing sugars (DNSA method) and Proteins (Biuret method)

4. Qualitative analysis of urine for abnormal constituents

5. Determination of blood creatinine

6. Determination of blood sugar

7. Determination of serum total cholesterol

8. Preparation of buffer solution and measurement of pH

9. Study of enz ymatic hydrolysis of starch

10. Determination of Salivary am ylase activity

11. Study the effect of Temperature on Salivary amylase activity.

12. Study the effect of substrate concentration on salivary amylase activity.

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1.  Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger.

2.  Harper’s Biochemistry by Robert K. Murry, Daryl K. Granner and Victor W. Rodwell.

3.  Biochemistry by Stryer.

4.  Biochemistry by D. Satyanarayan and U.Chakrapani

5.  Textbook of Biochemistry by Rama Rao.

6.  Textbook of Biochemistry by Deb.

7.  Outlines of Biochemistry by Conn and Stumpf

8.  Practical Biochemistry by R.C. Gupta and S. Bhargavan.

9.   Introduction of Practical Biochemistry by David T. Plummer. (3rd Edition)

10. Practical Biochemistry for Medical students by Rajagopal and Ramakrishna.

11. Practical Biochemistry by Harold Varley.

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