Environmental Sciences - B.Pharma 2nd Semester PDF Notes


Scope: Environmental Sciences is the scientific study of the environmental system and the status of its inherent or induced changes on organisms. It includes not only the study of physical and biological characters of the environment but also the social and cultural factors and the impact of man on environment.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to:

1.  Create the awareness about environmental problems among learners.

2.   Impart basic knowledge about the environment and its allied problems.

3.  Develop an attitude of concern for the environment.

4.  Motivate learner to participate in environment protection and environment improvement.

5.  Acquire skills to help the concerned individuals in identifying and solving environmental problems.

6.  Strive to attain harmony with Nature.

Course content:


The Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies

Natural Resources

Renewable and non-renewable resources: Natural resources and associated problems

a) Forest  resources;  b)  Water resources;  c) Mineral  resources;  d)  Food resources; e) Energy resources; f) Land resources: Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.



Concept of an ecosystem.

Structure and function of an ecosystem.

Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the ecosystems: Forest ecosystem; Grassland ecosystem; Desert ecosystem; Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)

Unit- III

Environmental Pollution: Air pollution; Water pollution; Soil pollution

Recommended Books (Latest edition):

1. Y.K.  Sing, Environmental Science, New Age International Pvt, Publishers, Bangalore

2. Agarwal, K.C. 2001 Environmental Biology, Nidi Publ. Ltd. Bikaner.

3. Bharuch Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Pu blishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad – 380 013, India,

4. Brunner R.C., 1989, Hazardous Waste Incineration, McGraw Hill Inc. 480p

5. Clark R.S., Marine Pollution, Clanderson Press Oxford

6. Cunningham, W.P. Cooper, T.H. Gorhani, E & Hepworth, M.T. 2001, Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publ. House, Mumbai, 1196p

7. De A.K., Environmental Chemistry, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

8. Down of Earth, Centre for Science and Environment

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