Human Anatomy and Physiology I - B. Pharma 1st Semester PDF Notes


Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the various systems of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostatic mechanisms.  The subject provides the basic knowledge required to understand the various disciplines of pharmacy.

Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to

1. Explain the gross morphology, structure and functions of various organs of the human body.

2. Describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances.

3. Identify the various tissues and organs of different systems of human body.

4. Perform the various experiments related to special senses and nervous system.

5. Appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system

Course Content:

Unit I

Introduction to human body

Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.

Cellular level of organization

Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular   signaling   pathway   activation   by   extracellular   signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent b) Paracrine c) S ynaptic d) Endocrine

Tissue level of organization

Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.

Unit II

Integumentary system

Structure and functions of skin

Skeletal system

Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system

Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction


Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation

Unit III

Body fluids and blood

Body fluids,  composition and  functions  of  blood,  hemopoeisis, formation  of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh  factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo endothelial system.

Lymphatic system

Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system

Unit IV

Peripheral nervous system:

Classification of peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.

Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.

Special senses

Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.

Unit V

Cardiovascular system

Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heartbeat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.


Practical physiology is complimentary to the theoretical discussions in physiology. Practicals allow the verification of physiological processes discussed in theory classes through experiments on living tissue, intact animals or normal human beings. This is helpful for developing an insight on the subject.

1.  Study of compound microscope.

2.  Microscopic study of epithelial and connective tissue

3.  Microscopic study of muscular and nervous tissue

4.   Identification of axial bones

5.   Identification of appendicular bones

6.   Introduction to hemocytometry.

7.  Enumeration of white blood cell (WBC) count

8.  Enumeration of total red blood corpuscles (RBC) count

9.  Determination of bleeding time

10. Determination of clotting time

11. Estimation of hemoglobin content

12. Determination of blood group.

13. Determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).

14. Determination of heart rate and pulse rate.

15.  Recording of blood pressure.

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1.  Essentials of Medical Physiology by K. Sembulingam and P.  Sembulingam. Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.

2.  Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness by Kathleen J.W. Wilson, Churchill Livingstone, New York

3.  Physiological basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor. Williams & Wilkins Co, Riverview, MI USA

4.  Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C,Guyton andJohn.E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.

5.  Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Tortora Grabowski. Palmetto, GA, U.S.A.

6.  Textbook of Human Histology by Inderbir Singh, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.

7.  Textbook of Practical Physiology by C.L. Ghai, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.

8.  Practical workbook of Human Physiology by K.  Srinageswari and Rajeev Sharma, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.

Reference Books (Latest Editions)

1.  Physiological basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor.  Williams & Wilkins Co, Riverview, MI USA

2.  Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C, Guyton and John. E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.

3.  Human Physiology (vol 1 and 2) by Dr. C.C. Chatterrje, Academic Publishers Kolkata

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