Human Anatomy and Physiology II - B. Pharma 2nd Semester PDF Notes


Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the various systems of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostatic mechanisms.  The subject provides the basic knowledge required to understand the various disciplines of pharmacy.

Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to:

1. Explain the gross morphology, structure and functions of various organs of the human body.

2. Describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their imbalances.

3. Identify the various tissues and organs of different systems of human body.

4. Perform the hematological tests like blood cell counts, haemoglobin estimation, bleeding/clotting time etc and also record blood pressure, heart rate, pulse and respiratory volume.

5. Appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system

6.  Appreciate the interlinked mechanisms in the maintenance of normal functioning (homeostasis) of human body.

Course Content:

Unit I

Nervous system

Organization of nervous system, neuron, neuroglia, classification and properties of nerve fibre,    electrophysiology, action potential, nerve impulse, receptors, synapse, neurotransmitters.

Central nervous system: Meninges, ventricles of brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Structure and functions of brain (cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum), spinal cord (gross structure, functions of afferent and efferent nerve tracts, reflex activity)

Unit II

Digestive system

Anatomy of GI Tract with special reference to anatomy and functions of stomach, ( Acid production in  the stomach, regulation of acid production through parasympathetic nervous system, pepsin role in protein digestion) small intestine and large intestine, anatomy and functions of salivary glands, pancreas and liver, movements of GIT, digestion and absorption of nutrients and disorders of GIT.


Formation and role of ATP, Creatinine Phosphate and BMR.

Unit III

Respiratory system

Anatomy of respiratory system with special reference to anatomy of lungs, mechanism of respiration, regulation of respiration

Lung Volumes and capacities transport of respiratory gases, artificial respiration, and resuscitation methods.

Urinary system

Anatomy of urinary tract with special reference to anatomy of kidney and nephrons, functions of kidney and urinary tract, physiology of urine formation, micturition reflex and role of kidneys in acid base balance, role of RAS in kidney and disorders of kidney.

Unit IV

Endocrine system

Classification of hormones, mechanism of hormone action, structure and functions of pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, pineal gland, thymus and their disorders.

Unit V

Reproductive system

Anatomy of male and female reproductive system, Functions of male and female reproductive system, sex hormones, physiology of menstruation, fertilization, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy and parturition

Introduction to genetics

Chromosomes, genes and DNA, protein synthesis, genetic pattern of inheritance


Practical physiology is complimentary to the theoretical discussions in physiology. Practicals allow the verification of physiological processes discussed in theory classes through experiments on living tissue, intact animals or normal human beings. This is helpful for developing an insight on the subject.

1.  To study the integumentary and special senses using specimen, models, etc.,

2.  To study the nervous system using specimen, models, etc.,

3.  To study the endocrine system using specimen, models, etc

4.  To demonstrate the general neurological examination

5.  To demonstrate the function of olfactory nerve

6.  To examine the different types of taste.

7.  To demonstrate the visual acuity

8.  To demonstrate the reflex activity

9.  Recording of body temperature

10. To demonstrate positive and negative feedback mechanism.

11. Determination of tidal volume and vital capacity.

12. Study of digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular systems, urinary and reproductive systems with the help of models, charts and specimens.

13. Recording of basal mass index        .

14. Study of family planning devices and pregnancy diagnosis test.

15. Demonstration of total blood count by cell analyser

16. Permanent slides of vital organs and gonads.

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1.  Essentials of Medical Physiology by K. Sembulingam and P. Sembulingam. Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.

2.  Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness by Kathleen J.W. Wilson, Churchill Livingstone, New York

3.  Physiological   basis   of   Medical   Practice-Best   and   Tailor.   Williams   &   Wilkins Co,Riverview,MI USA

4.  Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C,Guyton andJohn.E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.

5.  Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Tortora Grabowski. Palmetto, GA, U.S.A.

6.  Textbook of Human Histology by Inderbir Singh, Jaypee brothers medical publishers, New Delhi.

7.  Textbook of Practical Physiology by C.L. Ghai, Jaypee brothers medical publishers, New Delhi.

8.  Practical workbook of Human Physiology by K.  Srinageswari and Rajeev Sharma, Jaypee brother’s medical publishers, New Delhi.

Reference Books:

1.  Physiological basis of Medical Practice-Best and Tailor.  Williams & Wilkins Co, Riverview, MI USA

2.  Text book of Medical Physiology- Arthur C, Guyton and John. E. Hall. Miamisburg, OH, U.S.A.

3.  Human Physiology (vol 1 and 2) by Dr. C.C. Chatterrje, Academic Publishers Kolkata

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