Importance of Instrumental Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis - Instrumental Methods of Analysis B. Pharma 7th Semester

Importance of Instrumental Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Objectives of this session

After this session student will be able to

       Identify the different stages of drug development and formulation development and clinical usage where analytical methods are to be applied.

       Outline the advantages of Instrumental methods over conventional methods of analysis.

       List the different instrumental methods used in Pharmaceutical Analysis.

Analysis in Drug Development Process

Analysis in various steps involved in Formulation Development

Pharmacopoeial Standards

v  Objective, public standards of quality for medicines and formulated preparations

       Assay Standards

       Qualitative tests for purity

       Semi quantitative tests for purity

       Quantitative tests for purity

Instrumental Methods of Analysis


 Measures the interaction of the molecules/ atoms with electromagnetic radiation.

Ø  atomic absorption spectroscopy,

Ø  atomic emission spectroscopy,

Ø  ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy,

Ø  x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy,

Ø  infrared spectroscopy,

Ø  Raman spectroscopy,

Ø  nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy,

Ø  photoemission spectroscopy,

Ø  Mössbauer spectroscopy,

Ø  Circular dichroism spectroscopy,

       Mass spectrometry:

 Measures mass-to-charge ratio of molecules using electric and magnetic fields

Ø   electron ionization, chemical ionization, electrospray, fast atom bombardment, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

Ø  magnetic-sector, quadrupole mass analyzer, quadrupole ion trap, time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

Crystallography: A technique that characterizes the chemical structure of materials at the atomic level.

        The diffraction patterns of electromagnetic radiation or particles deflected by atoms in the material.

        Most commonly used: X-rays .

       Relative placement of atoms in space

Electrochemical analytical Methods:

Measure the electric potential in volts and/or the electric current in amps in an electrochemical cell containing the analyte

        Potentiometry (the difference in electrode potentials is measured)

       Coulometry (the cell's current is measured over time)

       Voltammetry (the cell's current is measured while actively altering the cell's potential)

Thermal analysis

        Measure the interaction of a material and heat

       Calorimetry and Thermo gravimetric analysis

Separation Techniques

       Decrease the complexity of material mixtures.

       Chromatography and electrophoresis.

Hybrid techniques

       Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

       Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS)

       Liquid chromatography-infrared spectroscopy (LC-IR)

       Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS)

       Capillary electrophoresis-ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (CE-UV)

       Ion-mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry

       Prolate trochoidal mass spectrometer


       The visualization of single molecules, single biological cells, biological tissues and nanomaterials 

       Optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy.

       Combination with other traditional analytical tools


       Devices that integrate multiple laboratory functions on a single chip  (Microfluidics)


       Analytical Methods are required at different stages of drug  development, formulation development as well as in clinical use

       Instrumental Methods of Analysis find place in every aspect of Pharmaceutical production and product development which involves clinical studies and also in routine clinical usage to monitor patient’s response to treatment

       Instrumental methods include Spectroscopic methods, electrochemical methods and chromatographic methods

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