Scope: This subject deals with the application of instrumental methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs.  This subject is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the principles and instrumentation of spectroscopic and chromatographic technique. This also emphasizes on theoretical and practical knowledge on modern analytical instruments that are used for drug testing.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to

1.  Understand the interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiations and its applications in drug analysis

2.  Understand the chromatographic separation and analysis of drugs.

3.  Perform quantitative & qualitative analysis of drugs using various analytical instruments.

Course Content:


UV Visible spectroscopy

Electronic transitions, chromophores, auxochromes, spectral shifts, solvent effect on absorption spectra, Beer and Lambert’s law, Derivation and deviations.

Instrumentation - Sources of radiation, wavelength selectors, sample cells, detectors- Photo tube, Photomultiplier tube, Photo voltaic cell, Silicon Photodiode.

Applications - Spectrophotometric titrations, Single component and multi component analysis


Theory, Concepts of singlet, doublet and triplet electronic states, internal and external conversions, factors affecting fluorescence, quenching, instrumentation and applications of Fluorimetry 


IR spectroscopy

Introduction, fundamental modes of vibrations in poly atomic molecules, sample handling, factors affecting vibrations

Instrumentation - Sources of radiation, wavelength selectors, detectors - Golay cell, Bolometer, Thermocouple, Thermister, Pyroelectric detector and applications

Flame Photometry- Principle, interferences, instrumentation and applications

Atomic absorption spectroscopy- Principle, interferences, instrumentation and applications

Atomic emission spectroscopy- Principle, interferences, instrumentation and applications

Nepheloturbidometry- Principle, instrumentation and applications


Introduction to chromatography

Adsorption and partition column chromatography- Methodology, advantages, disadvantages and applications.

Thin layer chromatography- Introduction, Principle, Methodology, Rf values, advantages, disadvantages and applications.

Paper chromatography- Introduction, methodology, development techniques, advantages, disadvantages and applications

Electrophoresis– Introduction, factors affecting electrophoretic mobility, Techniques of paper, gel, capillary electrophoresis, applications


Gas chromatography - Introduction, theory, instrumentation, derivatization, temperature programming, advantages, disadvantages and applications

High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - Introduction, theory, instrumentation, advantages and applications.


Ion exchange chromatography- Introduction, classification, ion exchange resins, properties, mechanism of ion exchange process, factors affecting ion exchange, methodology and applications

Gel chromatography- Introduction, theory, instrumentation and applications

Affinity chromatography- Introduction, theory, instrumentation and applications

Other Topic related to Instrumental method of Analysis:

Applications of Instrumental methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Importance of Instrumental methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis

Ultraviolet visible uv vis spectroscopy

Qualitative applications of UV Visible spectrophotometry

Quantitative methodology

Dispersive IR spectrophotometers

Fourier Transform Infra-red spectrophotometers

Sample handling and interpretation of IR spectra

Spectroscopy and Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum


1. Determination of absorption maxima and effect of solvents on absorption maxima of organic compounds

2. Estimation of dextrose by colorimetry

3. Estimation of sulfanilamide by colorimetry

4. Simultaneous estimation of ibuprofen and paracetamol by UV spectroscopy

5. Assay of paracetamol by UV- Spectrophotometry

6. Estimation of quinine sulfate by fluorimetry

7. Study of quenching of fluorescence

8. Determination of sodium by flame photometry

9. Determination of potassium by flame photometry

10. Determination of chlorides and sulphates by nephelo turbidometry

11. Separation of amino acids by paper chromatography

12. Separation of sugars by thin layer chromatography

13. Separation of plant pigments by column chromatography

14. Demonstration experiment on HPLC

15. Demonstration experiment on Gas Chromatography

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1.   Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis by B.K Sharma

2.  Organic spectroscopy by Y.R Sharma

3.  Text book of Pharmaceutical Analysis by Kenneth   A. Connors

4.  Vogel’s Text book of Quantitative Chemical Analysis by A.I. Vogel

5.  Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry by A.H. Beckett and J.B. Stenlake

6.  Organic Chemistry by I. L. Finar

7.  Organic spectroscopy by William Kemp

8.  Quantitative Analysis of Drugs by D. C. Garrett

9.  Quantitative Analysis of Drugs in Pharmaceutical Formulations by P. D. Sethi

10. Spectrophotometric identification of Organic Compounds by Silverstein




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