Pathophysiology - B. Pharma 2nd Semester PDF Notes


Scope: Pathophysiology is the study of causes of diseases and reactions of the body to such disease producing causes. This course is designed to impart a thorough knowledge of the relevant aspects of pathology of various conditions with reference to its pharmacological applications, and understanding of basic pathophysiological mechanisms. Hence it will not only help to study the syllabus of pathology, but also to get baseline knowledge required to practice medicine safely, confidently, rationally and effectively.

Objectives: Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to –

1.   Describe the etiology and pathogenesis of the selected disease states;

2.   Name the signs and symptoms of the diseases; and

3.   Mention the complications of the diseases.

Course content:

Unit I

Basic principles of Cell injury and Adaptation:

Introduction, definitions, Homeostasis, Components and Types of Feedback systems, Causes of cellular injury, Pathogenesis (Cell membrane damage, Mitochondrial damage, Ribosome damage, Nuclear damage), Morphology of cell injury – Adaptive changes (Atrophy, Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia), Cell swelling, Intra cellular accumulation, Calcification, Enzyme leakage and Cell Death Acidosis & Alkalosis, Electrolyte imbalance

Cell injury - irreversible

Cell injury - reversible

Basic mechanism involved in the process of inflammation and repair:

Introduction, Clinical signs of inflammation, Different types of Inflammation, Acute Inflammation, Chronic Inflammation,   Mechanism of Inflammation    Alteration  in  vascular  permeability and  blood flow, migration of WBC’s, Mediators of inflammation, Basic principles of wound healing in the skin, Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis

Unit II

Cardiovascular System:

Hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heartdisease (angina, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis)

Respiratory system: Asthma, Chronic obstructive airways diseases.

Renal system: Acute and chronic renal failure    .

Unit III

Haematological Diseases:

Iron deficiency Anemia, megaloblastic anemia (Vit B12 and folic acid), sickle cell anemia, thalasemia, hereditary acquired anemia, hemophilia.

Endocrine system: Diabetes, thyroid diseases, disorders of sex hormones

Nervous system: Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, Stroke, psychiatric disorders: depression, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Gastrointestinal system: Peptic Ulcer

Unit IV

Inflammatory bowel diseases, jaundice, hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E,F) alcoholic liver disease.

Disease of bones and joints: Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and gout

Principles of cancer: classification, etiology and pathogenesis of cancer

Unit V

Infectious diseases: Meningitis, Typhoid, Leprosy, Tuberculosis

Urinary tractinfections

Sexually transmitted diseases: AIDS, Syphilis, Gonorrhea

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Vinay Kumar, Abul K.  Abas, Jon C. Aster; Robbins &Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease; South Asia edition; India; Elsevier; 2014.

2. Harsh Mohan; Text book of Pathology; 6th edition; India; Jaypee Publications; 2010.

3. Laurence B, Bruce C, Bjorn K. ; Goodman Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics; 12th edition; New York; McGraw-Hill; 2011.

4. Best, Charles Herbert  1899-1978; Taylor, Norman Burke 1885-1972;  West, John  B (John  Burnard);  Best  and Taylor’s  Physiological  basis  of  medical  practice;  12th  ed; united states;

5.   William and Wilkins, Baltimore; 1991 [1990 printing].

6. Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, Stuart H. Ralston;Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine; 21st edition; London; ELBS/Churchill Livingstone; 2010.

7. Guyton A, John .E Hall; Textbook of Medical Physiology; 12th edition; WB Saunders Company; 2010.

8. Joseph DiPiro, Robert L. Talbert, Gary Yee, Barbara Wells, L. Michael Posey; Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach;    9th   edition; London; McGraw-Hill Medical; 2014.

9. V. Kumar, R. S. Cotran and S. L. Robbins; Basic Pathology; 6th  edition; Philadelphia; WB Saunders Company; 1997.

10. Roger Walker, Clive Edwards; Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics; 3rd edition; London; Churchill Livingstone publication; 2003.

Recommended Journals

1. The Journal of Pathology. ISSN: 1096-9896 (Online)    

2. The American Journal of Pathology. ISSN: 0002-9440  

3. Pathology. 1465-3931 (Online)              

4. International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. ISSN: 1944-8171 (Online)

5. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. ISSN-0377-4929.                            

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