Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry II - B. Pharma 3rd Semester Notes PDF


Scope: This subject deals with general methods of preparation and reactions of some organic compounds. Reactivity of organic compounds are also studied here. The syllabus emphasizes on mechanisms and orientation of reactions. Chemistry of fats and oils are also included in the syllabus.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course the student shall be able to

1.  write the structure, name and the type of isomerism of the organic compound

2.  write the reaction, name the reaction and orientation of reactions

3.  account for reactivity/stability of compounds,

4.  prepare organic compounds

Course Content:

General methods of preparation and reactions of compounds superscripted with asterisk (*) to be explained

To emphasize on definition, types, classification, principles/mechanisms, applications, examples and differences


Benzene and its derivatives

A.  Analytical, synthetic and other evidences in the derivation of structure of benzene, Orbital picture,   resonance in benzene, aromatic characters, Huckel’s rule

B.  Reactions of benzene - nitration, sulphonation, halogenation- reactivity, Friedelcrafts alkylation- reactivity, limitations, Friedelcrafts acylation.

C.  Substituents, effect of substituents on reactivity and orientation of mono substituted benzene compounds towards electrophilic substitution reaction

D.  Structure and uses of DDT, Saccharin, BHC and Chloramine


Phenols* - Acidity of phenols, effect of substituents on acidity, qualitative tests, Structure and uses of phenol, cresols, resorcinol, naphthols

Aromatic Amines* - Basicity of amines, effect of substituents on basicity, and synthetic uses of aryl diazonium salts

Aromatic Acids* – Acidity, effect of substituents on acidity and important reactions of benzoic acid.


Fats and Oils

a.   Fatty acids – reactions.

b.  Hydrolysis, Hydrogenation, Saponification and Rancidity of oils, Drying oils.

c.   Analytical constants – Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Iodine value, Acetyl value, Reichert Meissl (RM) value – significance and principle involved in their determination.


Polynuclear hydrocarbons:

a.   Synthesis, reactions

b.  Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, Diphenylmethane, Triphenylmethane and their derivatives


Cyclo alkanes*

Stabilities – Baeyer’s strain theory, limitation of Baeyer’s strain theory, Coulson and Moffitt’s modification, Sachse Mohr’s theory (Theory of strainless rings), reactions of cyclopropane and cyclobutane only


I. Experiments involving laboratory techniques


    Steam distillation

II    Determination of following oil values (including standardization of reagents)

    Acid value

    Saponification value

    Iodine value

III   Preparation of compounds

Benzanilide/Phenyl benzoate/Acetanilide from Aniline/ Phenol/Aniline by acylation reaction.

2,4,6-Tribromo aniline/Para bromo acetanilide from Aniline/ Acetanilide by halogenation (Bromination) reaction.

5-Nitro salicylic acid/Meta di nitro benzene from Salicylic acid  / Nitro benzene by nitration reaction.

Benzoic acid from Benzyl chloride by oxidation reaction.

Benzoic acid/ Salicylic acid from alkyl benzoate/ alkyl salicylate by hydrolysis reaction.

1-Phenyl azo-2-napthol from Aniline by diazotization and coupling reactions.

Benzil from Benzoin by oxidation reaction.

Dibenzal acetone from Benzaldehyde by Claison Schmidt reaction

Cinnammic acid from Benzaldehyde by Perkin reaction

P-Iodo benzoic acid from P-amino benzoic acid

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1.  Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd

2.  Organic Chemistry by I.L. Finar , Volume-I

3.  Textbook of Organic Chemistry by B.S. Bahl & Arun Bahl.

4.  Organic Chemistry by P.L.Soni

5.  Practical Organic Chemistry by Mann and Saunders.

6.  Vogel’s text book of Practical Organic Chemistry

7.  Advanced Practical organic chemistry by N.K.Vishnoi.

8.   Introduction to Organic Laboratory techniques by Pavia, Lampman and Kriz.

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