Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry I - B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf


Scope: The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope, classification of crude drugs, their identification and evaluation, phytochemicals present in them and their medicinal properties.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able

1.   To know the techniques in the cultivation and production of crude drugs

2.   To know the crude drugs, their uses and chemical nature

3.   Know the evaluation techniques for the herbal drugs

4.   To carry out the microscopic and morphological evaluation of crude drugs

Course Content:


Introduction to Pharmacognosy:

(a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy

(b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture

(c) Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).

Classification of drugs:

Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero taxonomical classification of drugs

Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:

Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.

Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leafconstants, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.


 Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin: Cultivation and Collection of drugs of natural origin

Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal plants. Plant hormones and their applications.

Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants

Conservation of medicinal plants


Plant tissue culture:

Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance.

Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy. Edible vaccines


Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:

Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.

Introduction to secondary metabolites:

Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides,

Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins


Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing following drugs

Plant Products:

Fibers - Cotton, Jute, Hemp

Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens

Primary metabolites:

General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation, evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical Aids and/or Medicines for the following Primary metabolites:

Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey

Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain, serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).

Lipids (Waxes, fats, fixed oils): Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax

Marine Drugs:

Novel medicinal agents from marine sources



1.   Analysis of crude drugs by chemical tests: (i)Tragaccanth (ii) Acacia (iii)Agar (iv)

Gelatin (v) starch (vi) Honey (vii) Castor oil

2.   Determination of stomatal number and index

3.   Determination of vein islet number, vein islet termination and paliside ratio.

4.   Determination  of  size  of  starch  grains,  calcium  oxalate  crystals  by  eye  piece micrometer

5.   Determination of Fiber length and width

6.   Determination of number of starch grains by Lycopodium spore method

7.   Determination of Ash value

8.   Determination of Extractive values of crude drugs

9.   Determination of moisture content of crude drugs

10. Determination of swelling index and foaming

Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

1.   W.C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co., London, 2009.

2.   Tyler, V.E., Brady, L.R. and Robbers, J.E., Pharmacognosy, 9th Edn., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1988.

3.   Text Book of Pharmacognosy by T.E. Wallis

4.   Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi.

5.   Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.

6.   Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New Delhi.

7.   Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.SH.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New Delhi, 2007

8.   Practical Pharmacognosy: C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae

9.   Anatomy of Crude Drugs by M.A. Iyengar

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