Pharmacology I - B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf


Scope: The main purpose of the subject is to understand what drugs do to the living organisms and how their effects can be applied to therapeutics. The subject covers the information about the drugs like, mechanism of action, physiological and biochemical effects (pharmacodynamics) as well as absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetics) along with the adverse effects, clinical uses, interactions, doses, contraindications and routes of administration of different classes of drugs.

Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to

1.  Understand the pharmacological actions of different categories of drugs

2.  Explain the mechanism of drug action at organ system/sub cellular/macromolecular levels.

3.  Apply the basic pharmacological knowledge in the prevention and treatment of various diseases.

4.  Observe the effect of drugs on animals by simulated experiments

5.  Appreciate correlation of pharmacology with other bio medical sciences

Course Content:


1. General Pharmacology

a. Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of pharmacology, nature and source of drugs, essential drugs concept and routes of drug administration, Agonists, antagonists( competitive and non-competitive), spare receptors, addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy.

b. Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. Enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination


General Pharmacology

a. Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories and classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions signal transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptor, transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding receptor and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose response relationship, therapeutic index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying drug action.

b. Adverse drug reactions.

c. Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic)

d. Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs -Drug discovery phase, preclinical evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and pharmacovigilance.


2. Pharmacology of drugs acting on peripheral nervous system

a. Organization and function of ANS.

b.Neurohumoral transmission,co-transmission and classification of neurotransmitters.

c. Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, sympatholytics.

d. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).

e. Local anesthetic agents.

f. Drugs used in m yasthenia gravis and glaucoma


3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system

a. Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S.special emphasis on importance of various neurotransmitters like with GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin, dopamine.

b. General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics.

c. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants. d. Anti-epileptics

e. Alcohols and disulfiram


3. Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system

a. Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents, anti-manics and hallucinogens.

b. Drugs used in Parkinsons disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

c. CNS stimulants and nootropics.

d. Opioid analgesics and antagonists

e. Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.

BP 408 P.PHARMACOLOGY-I (Practical)

1.   Introduction to experimental pharmacology.

2.  Commonly used instruments in experimental pharmacology.

3.  Study of common laboratory animals.

4.  Maintenance of laboratory animals as per CPCSEA guidelines.

5.  Common laboratory techniques.  Blood withdrawal, serum and plasma separation, anesthetics and euthanasia used for animal studies.

6.  Study of different routes of drugs administration in mice/rats.

7.  Study of effect of hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers on the phenobarbitone sleeping time in mice.

8.  Effect of drugs on ciliary motility of frog oesophagus

9.  Effect of drugs on rabbit eye.

10. Effects of skeletal muscle relaxants using rota-rod apparatus.

11. Effect of drugs on locomotor activity using actophotometer.

12. Anticonvulsant effect of drugs by MES and PTZ method.

13. Study of stereotype and anti-catatonic activity of drugs on rats/mice.

14. Study of anxiolytic activity of drugs using rats/mice.

15. Study of local anesthetics by different methods

Note: All laboratory techniques and animal experiments are demonstrated by simulated experiments by softwares and videos

Recommended Books (Latest Editions)

1. Rang H. P., Dale M. M., Ritter J. M., Flower R. J., Rang and Dale’s Pharmacology,. Churchil Livingstone Elsevier

2. Katzung B. G., Masters S. B., Trevor A. J., Basic and clinical pharmacology, Tata Mc Graw-Hill

3. Goodman and Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics

4. Marry Anne K. K., Lloyd Yee Y., Brian K. A., Robbin L.C., Joseph G. B., Wayne A. K., Bradley R.W., Applied Therapeutics, The Clinical use of Drugs, The Point Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

5. Mycek M.J, Gelnet S.B and Perper M.M. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews- Pharmacology

6. K.D.Tripathi. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, JAYPEE Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd, New Delhi.

7. Sharma H. L., Sharma K. K., Principles of Pharmacology, Paras medical publisher

8. Modern Pharmacology with clinical Applications, by Charles R.Craig& Robert,

9. Ghosh MN. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology.  Hilton & Company, Kolkata.

10. Kulkarni SK. Handbook of experimental pharmacology. VallabhPrakashan,

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