Physical Pharmaceutics II - B. Pharma 4th Semester Notes Pdf


Scope: The course deals with the various physica and physicochemical properties, and principals involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Objectives: Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to

1.  Understand various physicochemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms

2.  Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing nad determination of expiry date of formulations

3.  Demonstrate use of physicochemical properties in the formulation development and evaluation of dosage forms.

Course Content:


Colloidal  dispersions:  Classification  of  dispersed  systems  &  their  general characteristics,  size  &  shapes  of  colloidal  particles,  classification  of  colloids   & comparative account of their general properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties. Effect of electrolytes, coacervation, peptization& protective action.


Rheology: Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature, non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers

Deformation of solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, Stress, Strain, Elastic Modulus


Coarse dispersion: Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, formulation of flocculated and deflocculated   suspensions. Emulsions and theories of emulsification, microemulsion and multiple emulsions; Stability of emulsions, preservation of emulsions, rheological     properties of emulsions and emulsion formulation by HLB method.


Micromeretics: Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight distribution,  particle  number,  methods  for  determining  particle  size  by  different methods, counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.


Drug stability: Reaction kinetics: zero, pseudo-zero, first & second order, units of basic rate constants, determination of reaction order. Physical and chemical factors influencing the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric constant, specific & general acid base catalysis, Simple numerical problems. Stabilization of medicinal agents against common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation. Accelerated stability testing in expiration dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Photolytic degradation and its prevention


1.  Determination of particle size, particle size distribution using sieving method

2.  Determination of particle size, particle size distribution using Microscopic method

3.  Determination of bulk density, true density and porosity

4.  Determine the angle of repose and influence of lubricant on angle of repose

5.  Determination of viscosity of liquid using Ostwald’s viscometer

6.  Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different suspending agent

7.  Determination sedimentation volume with effect of different concentration of single suspending agent

8.  Determination of viscosity of semisolid by using Brookfield viscometer

9.  Determination of reaction rate constant first order.

10. Determination of reaction rate constant second order

11. Accelerated stability studies

Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin, Sixth edition

2. Experimental pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.

3. Tutorial pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.

4. Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical calculations, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

5. Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to 3, Marcel Dekkar Inc.

6. Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical dosage forms. Disperse systems, volume 1, 2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.

7. Physical Pharmaceutics by Ramasamy C, and Manavalan R.

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