Current GMP in manufacturing processes 

Packaging and holding of drugs

Finished pharmaceuticals 

General provisions 

Organization and personnel 

Building and facilities 


Control of components

Containers and closures 

Production and process control 

Packaging and labeling control 

Holding and distribution 

Records and reports

Returned savaged drug products

The inspection for compliance with GMP regulations 

Controlled substances safeguards


What is GMP?

(Good Manufacturing Practices)

       GMP is that part of Quality assurance which ensures  that the products are consistently manufactured and  controlled to the Quality standards appropriate to  their intended use

       A set of principles and procedures which, when followed by manufacturers for therapeutic goods, helps ensure that the products manufacture will have the required quality.

       A basic tenet of GMP is that quality cannot be tested into a batch of product but must be built into each batch of product during all stages of the manufacturing process.

       It is designed to minimize the risks involved in any pharmaceutical production that cannot be eliminated through testing the final product.

Some of the main risks are

      Unexpected contamination of products, causing damage to health or even death.

      Incorrect labels on containers, which could mean that patients receive the wrong medicine.

      Insufficient or too much active ingredient, resulting in ineffective treatment or adverse effects.

Why GMP is important

       A poor  quality  medicine may contain toxic substances that have been unintentionally added.

       A medicine that contains little or none of the claimed ingredient will not have the intended therapeutic effect.


QA, GMP & QC inter-relationship


It is the sum total of the organized arrangements with the objective of ensuring that products will be of the quality required for their intended use


GMP is that part of Quality Assurance aimed at ensuring that products are consistently manufactured to a quality appropriate to their intended use

QC and QA

QC is that part of GMP which is concerned with sampling, specifications, testing and within the organization, documentation and release procedures which ensure that the necessary and relevant tests are carried out

       QA is the sum total of organized arrangements made with the object of ensuring that product will be of the Quality required by their intended use.

       Operational laboratory techniques and activities used to fulfill the requirement of Quality

       All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product will  satisfy the requirements  for quality

       QC is lab based

       QA is company based


       The Quality of a formulation or a bulk drug  depends on the Quality of those producing it

       GMP is the magic key that opens the door of  the Quality

       In matter of GMP, swim with the current and in matter of Quality stand like a rock!

GMP helps boost pharmaceutical export opportunities

       Most countries will only accept import and sale of medicines that have been manufactured to internationally recognized GMP.

       Governments seeking to promote their countries export of pharmaceuticals can do so by making GMP mandatory for all pharmaceutical production and by training their inspectors in GMP requirements.

GMP Covers…

       All aspects of production; from the starting materials, premises and equipment to the training and personal hygiene of staff.

       Detailed, written procedures are essential for each process that could affect the quality of the finished product.

       There must be systems to provide documented proof that correct procedures are consistently followed at each step in the manufacturing process - every time a product is made.

GMP guidelines

       GMP as per Schedule “M”

       GMP as per WHO

       GMP as per MCA now known as MHRA

       GMP as per TGA

       GMP as per US FDA

       GMP as per ICH guidelines

       WHO: World Health Organization

       MHRA: Ministry of Health and Regulatory Affairs  TGA: Therapeutic Goods Affairs

       FDA: Food And Drug Administration

       ICH: International Conference on Harmonization

       GMP as per Schedule “M”  GMP as per WHO

       GMP as per MCA now known as MHRA  GMP as per TGA  GMP as per US FDA

       GMP as per ICH guidelines


       GMP in solid dosage forms

       GMP in semisolid dosage forms

       GMP in Liquid orals

       GMP in Parenterals Production

       GMP in Ayurvedic medicines

       GMP in Bio technological products

       GMP in Nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals

Ten Principles of GMP

  1. Design and construct the facilities and equipments  properly
  2. Follow written procedures and Instructions
  3. Document work
  4. Validate work
  5. Monitor facilities and equipment
  6. Write  step by step operating procedures and work on  instructions
  7. Design ,develop and demonstrate job competence
  8. Protect against contamination
  9. Control components and product related processes
  10. Conduct planned and periodic audits

List of important documents in GMP


       SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)


       MFR (Master Formula Record)

       BMR (Batch Manufacturing Record)


       Master plans/ files

       Validation protocols

       Forms and Formats


10 attributes of a good document

  1. Accurate
  2. Clear
  3. Complete
  4. Consistent
  5. Indelible
  6. Legible
  7. Timely
  8. Direct
  9. Authentic
  10. Authorized

API Manufacturing Process

Secondary Manufacturing Dosage Forms

Secondary Manufacturing Process - Tablets

Secondary Manufacturing Process – Sterile parenteral for injection

Biotechnology Manufacturing Process

What are cGMPs?

       cGMP refers to the Current Good Manufacturing  Practice regulations enforced by the US Food and  Drug Administration (FDA).

       cGMP provide for systems that assure proper design,  monitoring and control of manufacturing processes  and facilities.

       Adherence to the cGMP regulations assures the  identity, strength, quality and purity of drug products  by requiring that manufacturers of medications  adequately control manufacturing operations

Why are cGMP so important?

       A consumer usually cannot detect (through smell, touch, or sight) that a drug product is safe or if it will work.

       While cGMPs require testing, testing alone is not adequate to ensure quality.

       In most instances testing is done on a small sample of a batch (for example, a drug manufacturer may test 1000 tablets from a batch that contains 2 million tablets), so that most of the batch can be used for patients rather than destroyed by testing.


Primary packaging is the packaging used to form a container for product and which is in direct contact with the product.

Eg. Sterile vials, medicine bottle, tablet blisters pack.

Secondary Packaging is any subsequent packaging which helps to inform about, display and product. It include all required labeling and information leaflets.

Tertiary Packaging is any final packaging grouping the products for storage and transportation.

Packaging and holding of drugs

       Care shall be taken when using automatic tablet and capsule counting, strip and blister packaging equipment to ensure that all ‘rogue’ tablets, capsules or foils from packaging operation are removed before a new packaging operation is commenced.

       There shall be an independent recorded check of the equipment before a new batch of tablets or capsules is handled.

Finished pharmaceuticals

Appropriate specifications for finished products shall include: -

       The designated name of the product and the code reference.

       The formula or a reference to the formula and the pharmacopoeial reference.

       Directions for sampling and testing or a reference to procedures.

General provisions

       The processing of dry materials and products creates problems of dust control and cross- contamination. Special attention is therefore, needed in the design, maintenance and use of premises and equipment in order to overcome these problems. Wherever required, enclosed dust control manufacturing systems shall be employed.

Organization and personnel

  1. Responsibilities of quality control unit.
  2. Personnel qualifications.
  3. Personnel responsibilities.
  4. Consultants.

Building and facilities

  1. Design and construction features.
  2. Lighting.
  3. Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.
  4. Plumbing.
  5. Sewage and refuse.
  6. Washing and toilet facilities.
  7. Sanitation.
  8. Maintenance.


  1. Equipment design, size, and location.
  2. Equipment construction.
  3. Equipment cleaning and maintenance.
  4. Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment.
  5. Filters.

Control of components

  1. General requirements.
  2. Receipt & storage of untested components, drug product containers and closures.
  3. Testing and approval or rejection of components, drug product containers and closures.
  4. Use of approved components, drug product containers, and closures.
  5. Retesting of approved components, drug product containers, and closures.
  6. Rejected components, drug product containers, and closures.
  7. Drug product containers and closures.

Containers and closures

       All containers and closures intended for use shall comply with the pharmacopoeial requirements.  Suitable validated test methods, sample sizes, specifications, cleaning procedure and sterilization procedure, wherever indicated, shall be strictly followed to ensure that these are not reactive, additive, absorptive, or leach to an extent that significantly affects the quality or purity of the drug. No second hand or used containers and closures shall be used.

Production and process control

  1. Written procedures; deviations.
  2. Charge-in of components.
  3. Calculation of yield.
  4. Equipment identification.
  5. Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.
  6. Time limitations on production.
  7. Control of microbiological contamination.
  8. Reprocessing.

Packaging and labeling control

  1. Materials examination and usage criteria.
  2. Labeling issuance.
  3. Packaging and labeling operations.
  4. Tamper-evident packaging requirements for over-the-counter (OTC) human drug products.
  5. Drug product inspection.
  6. Expiration dating.

Holding and distribution

  1. Warehousing procedures.
  2. Distribution procedures.
  3. Prior to distribution or dispatch of given batch of a drug, it  shall be ensure that the batch has been duly tested, approved  and released by the quality control personnel. Pre-dispatch inspection shall be performed on each consignment on a random basis to ensure that only the correct goods are dispatched. Detailed instructions for warehousing and stocking of Large Volume Parenterals, if stocked, shall be in existence and shall be complied with after the batch is released for distribution. Periodic audits of warehousing practices followed at distribution centers shall be carried out and records thereof shall be maintained. Standard Operating Procedures shall be developed for warehousing of products.

Records and reports

  1. General requirements.
  2. Equipment cleaning and use log.
  3. Component, drug product container, closure, and labeling records.
  4. Master production and control records.
  5. Batch production and control records.
  6. Production record review.
  7. Laboratory records.
  8. Distribution records.
  9. Complaint files.

Returned savaged drug products

  1. Returned drug products.
  2. Drug product salvaging.
  3. Adequate areas shall be designed to allow sufficient and orderly warehousing of returned or recalled products.
  4. Segregation shall be provided for the storage of rejected, recalled or returned materials or products.

The inspection for compliance with GMP regulations

       Short description of the self-inspection system indicating whether an outside, independent and experienced external export was involved in evaluating the manufacturer’s compliance with Good manufacturing Practices in all aspects of production.

       Periodic inspection of the garments shall be done by responsible staff.

Controlled substances safeguards

       Hazardous, toxic substances and flammable materials shall be stored in suitably designed and segregated, enclosed areas in conformity with Central and State Legislations.

       Highly hazardous, poisonous and explosive materials such as narcotics, psychotropic drugs and substances presenting potential risks of abuse, fire or explosion shall be stored in safe and secure areas. Adequate fire protection measures shall be provided in conformity with the rules of the concerned civic authority.


       EU Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)  Guidelines, Volume 4 of “The rules governing  medicinal products in the European Union”

       US FDA current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for finished pharmaceuticals, 21 CFR, 210 and 211

       WHO Good Manufacturing Practices for  pharmaceutical products, Annex 4 to WHO  Technical Report Series, No. 908, 2003


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