Air pollution

Air pollution

Intended Learning Outcomes

At the end of this session, students will be able to

• Explain Air Pollution

• Describe the source of Air pollution

• Discuss the effect of Air pollution

• Discuss control of Air pollution

Content

• Air Pollution

• Source of Air pollution

• Effect of Air pollution

• Air pollution Management and Control

Pollution – Definition

• Any undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, land, water

• Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms

• Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light

• Air pollution may be defined as any atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations that they can produce undesirable effects on man and his environment

• Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems in societies at all level of economic development

• The result can be lung disease, eye problems, and increased risk of cancer

Unit of measurement

• Concentrations of air pollutants are commonly expressed as the mass of pollutant per Unit volume of air mixture, as mg/m3, μg/m3, ng /m3

Types of pollutants

• CONVENTIONAL: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Hydrocarbons, Lead Etc

• NON-CONVENTIONAL: Asbestosis (lung scaring), Mesothelioma (cancer of the lung and the abdominal lining), Mercury (Lung cancer), Beryllium, Copper, Super phosphate, Glass and enamel factories, Aluminum plants, Hydrogen, Lameness.

Air Pollution    

How

Why

A  cloud  of  smoke  from the exhaust of a vehicle

Increasing traffic

Smoke  from  a  factory chimney

Industrialization

Eruption of a volcano 

Rapid  economic development

Cigarette smoke 

Growing cities

Burning leaves 

Apathetic people

 

Effects of Air Pollution

• Health problems

• Damage to the environment

• Damage to property

• Thinning of the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere which is leading to climate changes

Air Pollutants and its impact on human health

Particulate Matter

• Dust and smoke particles cause irritation of the respiratory tract and produce bronchitis, asthma and lung diseases.

• Dust and smoke function as nuclei for condensation of water vapors and produce smog which attract chemicals like SO2, H2S, NO2,etc.

• Smog not only reduce visibility but is also harmful due to its contained chemicals.

Carbon Monoxide

• It is formed by incomplete combustion of carbon fuels in various industries, motor vehicles, etc

• It causes impairment of judgment and vision, headache and dizziness

Sulphur Dioxide

• It is produced in large quantity during smelting of metallic ores.

• It causes tracheal irritation, cough, bronchial spasms.

Chlorine

• It is present in volcanic eruptions and emitted in processes involving use of chlorinated chemicals

• It causes eye and respiratory ailments

• Chlorine rising up in the atmosphere poses danger to ozone layer

Smog

• Smog is the combination of smoke and fog. It is a man-made air pollutant in urban areas.

• The term smog was coined by H.A.Des Voeux

• Industrial Smog –“London” Smog

“London” smog:  fog soot particles Sulfur Dioxidetar. This forms a highly acidic mist.

• Some incidents of deaths associated with sulfurous smog:

1930- Meuse Valley, Belgium- 63

1948- Donora, Pennsylvania -20

1952 -London (5 days)- 4000

1962 -London -700

These deaths lead to a reduction in coal consumption and an increase in alternative fuels, such as gasoline...

Air Pollution Solutions

• Encourage your family to walk more

• Take the school bus

• Reduce the amount of spray bottles

• Do not burn leaves in your yard- put them in a compost

• Keep your family cars in tune

• Put catalytic converters on cars

• Share your room with others when the air conditioner is on

• Take care of your trees

Summary

• Any undesirable change in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, land, water is pollution

• Smog is the combination of smoke and fog

• A disease of the lungs characterized by fibrosis and caused by the chronic inhalation of mineral dusts, especially silica and asbestos is Pneumoconiosis

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