PROTEIN SYNTHESIS - Human Anatomy and Physiology B. Pharma 1st Semester


Proteins determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the cell and therefore of the organism formed from them. Some proteins help assemble cellular structures such as the plasma membrane, the cytoskeleton, and other organelles. Others serve as hormones, enzymes, antibodies, and contractile elements in muscular tissue. 

Proteome: all the protein of an organism 

Gene expression: Gene’s DNA is used as a template for the synthesis of specific protein 

Protein synthesis happens in 2 steps

A) Transcription

B) Translation


Transcription process through which the information encoded in a specific region of DNA is copied to produce a specific molecule of RNA.

Transcription happens in Nucleus. During transcription process the genetic information represented by the sequence of base triplets in DNA serves as a template for copying the information into complementary sequence of codons. 

The enzyme RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA.

Promoter: the specific nucleotide where the transcription begins.

Terminator: specific nucleotide where the transcription ends. 

Transcription leads to 3 types of RNA molecules

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): Helps form the ribosomes

Messenger RNA (mRNA): Carries the instructions from the nucleus to the ribosome for building a protein

Transfer RNA (tRNA): Transfers appropriate amino acids to the ribosome for building the protein


Translation process through which the information encoded by mRNA is translated to amino acid sequence of protein 

Translation is carried in the Cytosol of the cell. 

Translation occurs in many steps as following

a) Binding of mRNA to the small ribosomal unit, Binding of tRNA to the specific site

b) Attachment of large-ribosomal unit to small unit- mRNA complex

c) The anticodon on the tRNA pairs with the codon on mRNA

d) Large ribosomal subunit catalyzes the formation peptide bond which detaches the tRNA and the process of anticoding the codon is continued.

e) Protein synthesis ends when the ribosome reaches the terminator codon. 

Formed protein detaches from the tRNA. tRNA vacates the ribosomal unit and  ribosome splits into its large and small subunits.

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