ACIDIFYING AGENTS/ACIDIFIERS - Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B. Pharma 1st Semester

ACIDIFYING AGENTS/ACIDIFIERS

Introduction: What is the role of hydrochloric acid in human body?

Hydrochloric acid is naturally produced by the cells of the stomach. It serves two main functions in the stomach which are: to provide an optimum pH for the enzyme protease to work and also to kill pathogenic organisms in the stomach. When the secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach is reduced, the person suffers from a disease known as hypoacidity or achlorhydria

Definition: Acidifiers are inorganic chemicals that either produce or become acid. These chemicals increase the level of gastric acid in the stomach when ingested, thus decreasing the stomach pH.

These are many types of acidifiers but the main four types are:

      Gastric acidifiers, used in controlling pH in stomach.

      Urinary acidifiers, used in controlling pH in urine.

      Systemic acidifiers, used in controlling pH in all the parts of body.

      Acid, mostly used in laboratory experiments.

Gastric acidifiers, used in controlling pH in stomach:

In patients suffering from achlorhydria, there is deficient secretion of Hydrochloric acid in stomach. In such cases gastric acidifiers are useful in providing the necessary acidity for the proper digestion of food.

Cause of hypoacidity/achlorhydria:

Hypoacidity pertains to a condition of the decrease of acid in the stomach induced by lowered hydrochloric acid secretion. This condition may happen secondary to other disorders such as stomach cancer, pernicious anemia and infection with Helicobacter pylori or the treatment with acid-suppressing medicaments or surgeries. Inorganic agents used in treatment achlorhydria is dilute hydrochloric acid

Urinary acidifiers used in controlling pH in urine:

These are the agents which are used to render acidic urine to enable treatment of some types of urinary tract disorders. Inorganic agents used as urinary acidifiers are ammonium chloride, Sodium citrate

Systemic acidifiers are those agents which, when given usually by injection, act by reducing the alkali reserve in the body and also useful in reducing metabolic alkaloids. The inorganic agents used as systemic acidifiers are…………….

 

Acid, mostly used in laboratory experiments:

These are the agents used as pharmaceutical aids in the formulation, laboratory quality control…etc, Examples, concentrated and dilute mineral acids like Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid, Nitric acid

HYDROCHLORIC ACID

Hydrogen chloride is a gas; its solutions in water are commonly referred to as hydrochloric acid.

Synonyms: Anhydrous hydrochloric acid; chlorohydric acid; hydrochloric acid gas;hydrogen chloride; muriatic acid

Chemical formula: HCl

Molecular weight: 36.47 g/mol.

Standards: Hydrochloric Acid contains not less than 35.0 per cent w/w and not more than 38.0 percent w/w of hydrochloric acid

Method of preparation: 1) Hydrogen Chloride may be prepared in the laboratory by heating Concentrated Sulphuric acid, with Sodium Chloride.

Calculated quantities of concentrated sulphuric acid and sodium chloride are heated in a cast iron pan of salt cake furnace. The hydrochloric acid gas is formed which is passed in a tower, which is sprayed with water. The dilute hydrochloric acid is collected at the bottom of the pans. It is again circulated to the tower to absorb more hydrochloride so that it gets concentrated. The acid so produced is then purified. Sodium busulphite formed in the process is mixed with some more quantity of sodium chloride and heated strongly in amuffle furnance to get more hydrogen chloride gas,

Chemical Reactions:

NaCl   +    H2SO4    ==>  NaHSO4    +   HCl

NaHSO4 +    NaCl   ==>  Na2SO4    +   HCl

Overall reaction is

2NaCl   +    H2SO4    ==>  Na2SO4    + 2HCl

2) Industrially: It is prepared industrially by the combustion of Hydrogen, H2, in Chlorine, Cl2.

Large amount of hydrogen and chlorine gases are obtained as by products by electrolysis of sodium chloride solution during the manufacture of caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide). These gases are dried and then combined to produce hydrogen chloride gas. The gas is cooled and water is spread over the gas. The solution of hydrochloric acid flows to the storage tank.

Chemical Reactions:

H2    +   Cl2    ==>   2HCl

Storage: Store in stoppered containers of glass or any other inert material at a temperature not exceeding 30°C

Medicinal uses: In dilute form used in the treatment of achlorhydria, given intravenously in the management of metabolic alkalosis.

Other uses: Used as a pharmaceutical aid and laboratory reagent.

Dilute Hydrochloric acid

It contains 10 percent w/w of hydrochloric acid as Indian pharmacopeia

Standard: Dilute Hydrochloric Acid contains not less than 9.5 per cent and not more than 10.5 per cent w/w of hydrochloric acid

Ingredients:

Hydrochloric acid…………………… 274 g

Purified water……………………..726 g

Preparation: Specified quantity of hydrochloric acid is gradually added with stirring into specified quantity of water taking in a specified volume of beaker. Mixed well and Store in stoppered containers of glass or any other inert material at a temperature not exceeding 30°

Description: A clear, colorless liquid

Storage: Store in stoppered containers of glass or any other inert material at a temperature not exceeding 30°C

Medicinal uses: In dilute form used in the treatment of achlorhydria, given intravenously in the management of metabolic alkalosis.

Other uses: Used as a pharmaceutical aid and laboratory reagent.

Ammonium Chloride:

Chemical formula: NH4Cl

Molecular weight: 53.5 g/mol

Standard: Ammonium Chloride contains not less than 99.0 per cent and not more than 100.5 per cent of NH4Cl, calculated on the dried Basis

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