Disorders of Haemopoietic System - Human Anatomy and Physiology B. Pharma 1st Semester

Disorders of Haemopoietic System

Objectives

At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

• Discuss the disorders of haemopoietic system

Content

• Disorders of hemopoietic system

Disorders of Haemopoietic System

Anemia

• Condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced

 • Characterized by reduced numbers of RBCs or a decreased amount of hemoglobin in the blood

• The person feels fatigued and is intolerant of cold (related to lack of oxygen needed for ATP and heat production)

• Skin appears pale (low content of Hb)

Symptoms of Anaemia

• Pallor

• Fatigue

• Shortness of breath

• Tachycardia

• Headache

• Irritability

• Syncope

Types of Anaemia

• Iron de´Čüciency anemia – Inadequate absorption, excessive loss

• Megaloblastic anemia – Inadequate intake of vitamin B or folic acid

• Hemorrhagic anemia – Excessive loss of RBCs through bleeding

• Aplastic anemia – Destruction of red bone marrow results in aplastic anemia

• Pernicious anemia – Insufficient hemopoiesis - inability of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor

• Hemolytic anemia

– RBC plasma membranes rupture prematurely

– The released Hb may damage glomeruli

• Thalassemia

– Deficient synthesis of hemoglobin

– The RBCs are small (microcytic), pale (hypochromic), and short-lived

Sickle-Cell Disease

• Hb-S, an abnormal kind of hemoglobin

• When Hb-S gives up oxygen, it forms long, stiff, rod like structures - bend the erythrocyte into sickle shape

• The sickled cells rupture easily


• Leads to some degree of anemia and mild jaundice

• May experience joint or bone pain, breathlessness, rapid heart rate, abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue

Hemophilia

• Inherited deficiency of clotting

• Bleeding may occur spontaneously

• Oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder

• Sometimes referred to as the royal disease

Von Willebrand Disease

• Most common hereditary coagulation abnormality

• Arises from a qualitative or quantitative deficiency of von willebrand factor (vWF)

• vWF - A multimeric protein, required for platelet adhesion

Leukemia

• Group of red bone marrow cancer in which abnormal white blood cells multiply uncontrollably

• The cancerous white blood cells spread to the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, causing them to enlarge

• All leukemias produce the usual symptoms of anemia (fatigue, intolerance to cold, and pale skin)

• In addition, weight loss, fever, night sweats, excessive bleeding, and recurrent infections may occur

Common Symptoms of Leukemia

Summary

  The  ABO  blood  grouping    Based  on  antigen  (A  or  B)  and antibody ( A or B) type

 • Erythroblastosis Foetalis: Rh incompatibility between mother and foetus

• Disorders: Anaemia, Hemophilia, leukemia and sickle cell diseases

• Symptoms of anaemia: Pallor, Fatigue, Shortness of breath, Tachycardia, Headache, Irritability, Syncope

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