INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry B. Pharma 1st Semester

INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY

Contents

• Definition of chemistry

• Classification of chemistry

• Various aspects of pharmaceutical chemistry

Learning Objectives

At the end of this lecture, the student will be able to:

• Define chemistry

• Classify chemistry

• Define pharmaceutical chemistry

• Explain various aspects of pharmaceutical chemistry

What is matter?

• Anything that:

–Has mass

–Occupies space (volume).

The trees, the stone, and the buildings in the figure are all examples of matter.

What is chemistry?

• Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter and the changes that matter undergoes.

• Chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events because all living and nonliving things are made of matter.

Branches of chemistry

• Inorganic

• Organic

• Analytical

• Physical

• Biochemistry

Inorganic Chemistry

• The study of chemicals that do not contain carbon.

• Many inorganic chemicals are found in nonliving things, such as rocks.

Organic Chemistry

• The study of chemicals that contain carbon.

Origin: study of chemicals in living organisms.

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical chemistry: the area of chemistry that focuses on the composition of matter 

Physical Chemistry

• The study of:

  The mechanism

  The rate

  The energy transfer that happens when matter undergoes change.

Biochemistry

• Study of processes that take place in organisms.

Introduction to pharmaceutical chemistry

Pharmaceutical chemistry is the science that makes use of general laws of chemistry to study drugs

General laws of chemistry includes there:

• Preparation

• Chemical nature

• Composition

• Structure

• Influence on an organism

• Studies the physical and chemical properties of drugs and

• The method of quality control and the condition of their usage

In other words: it is the chemistry of drugs

• Is a specialized science which depends on other chemical disciplines such as:

- Inorganic

- Organic

- Analytical

- Physical

- Colloid chemistry and

- Also on medico-biological discipline such as pharmacology, physiology, biological chemistry, etc.

It occupies the most important place among the related sciences such as:

- Drug technology

- Toxicological chemistry

- Pharmacognosy

- The economy and organization of the pharmacy

Important aspects of pharmaceutical chemistry:

1. Methods for isolation, purification and characterization of medically active agents and materials from natural sources.

Bauxite, a major aluminium ore. The red-brown colour is due to the presence of iron minerals. Opium, dried crude extract obtained by incising unripe opium poppy capsules

2. The various synthetic route:

3. Natural substances are converted into products with more favorable therapeutic or pharmaceutical properties

4. Different forms of a medicinal agent which shows optimum medicinal activity and at the same time results in stable formulation and elegant dispensing.

5. Establishment of safe and practical standards with respect to both dosage and quality.

6. Search for new therapeutic agents especially when there exists no satisfactory remedy

Newer antibiotics were discovered like semi synthetic penicillin's, Cephalosporin's …etc.

Summary:

• Chemistry is a science which deals with properties matter.

• Pharmaceutical chemistry: Is the chemistry of drugs and pharmaceuticals

• Different branches of chemistry are inorganic, organic, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry and bio chemistry

• Pharmaceutical chemistry covers the aspects of isolation, synthesis, biological activity safety and quality of the drugs and pharmaceuticals

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