Common disorders of digestive system

Common disorders of digestive system

Ulcer

• Craterlike lesion in a membrane

• Ulcers that develop in areas of the GI tract exposed to acidic gastric juice are called peptic ulcers

• The most common complication - bleeding

• In acute cases, peptic ulcers can lead to shock and death

• Three distinct causes of PUD are recognized:

(1) The bacterium helicobacter pylori

(2) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) such as aspirin

(3) Hypersecretion of HCl, as occurs in zollinger–ellison syndrome, a gastrin-producing tumor, usually of the pancreas

Colorectal cancer

• The deadliest of malignancies

• Intake of alcohol, diets high in animal fat and protein are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer

• Dietary fiber, retinoids, calcium, and selenium may be protective

• Signs and symptoms: Diarrhea, constipation, cramping, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding, either visible or occult (hidden in feces)

Anorexia nervosa

• Characterized by self-induced weight loss, negative perception of body image, and physiological changes that result from nutritional depletion

• Patients abuse laxatives - Worsens the fluid and electrolyte imbalances and nutrient deficiencies

• Predominantly in young, single females

• May be inherited

• Abnormal patterns of menstruation, amenorrhea & lower BMR

• Inflammation of the liver - clinically, several types of viral hepatitis

• Caused by viruses, drugs, and chemicals, including alcohol

Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis)

• Caused by the hepatitis A virus

• Spread via fecal contamination of objects such as food, clothing, toys, and eating utensils

• Mild disease of children and young adults

• Characterized by loss of appetite, malaise, nausea, diarrhea, fever, and chills

• Eventually, jaundice appears

Hepatitis B

• Caused by the hepatitis B virus

• Spread primarily by sexual contact and contaminated syringes and transfusion equipment

• Spread via saliva and tears

• produce cirrhosis and possibly cancer of the liver

• Vaccines produced through recombinant DNA technology (for example, Recombivax HB) are available

Hepatitis C

• Caused by the hepatitis C virus (clinically similar to hepatitis B)

Hepatitis D

• Caused by the hepatitis D virus.

• Transmitted like hepatitis B

• Hepatitis D results in severe liver damage and has a higher fatality rate than infection with hepatitis B virus alone

Hepatitis E

• Caused by the hepatitis E virus and is spread like hepatitis A

• Very high mortality rate among pregnant women

Traveler’s diarrhoea

• Infectious disease of the GIT results in loose, urgent bowel movements, cramping, abdominal pain, malaise, nausea, and occasionally fever and dehydration

• Acquired through ingestion of food or water contaminated with fecal material typically containing bacteria (E. coli)

• Viruses or protozoan parasites are less common causes

Cirrhosis

• Distorted or scarred liver as a result of chronic inflammation due to:

– Hepatitis

– Chemicals that destroy hepatocytes

– Parasites that infect the liver

– Alcoholism

• Hepatocytes are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue

• Symptoms include jaundice, edema in the legs, uncontrolled bleeding and increased sensitivity to drugs

Heartburn

• A burning sensation in a region near the heart due to irritation of the mucosa of the esophagus from hydrochloric acid in stomach contents

• Caused by failure of the LES to close properly, so that the stomach contents enter the inferior esophagus

• It is not related to any cardiac problem

Halitosis (Bad breath)

• A foul odor from the mouth

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

• Inflammation of GIT that exists in two forms

(1) Crohn’s disease

– Inflammation of any part of GIT in which the inflammation extends from the mucosa through the submucosa, muscularis, and serosa

– Cigarette smoking increases the risk of Crohn’s disease

• (2) Ulcerative colitis

– Inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and rectum, usually accompanied by rectal bleeding

Food poisoning

• A sudden illness caused by ingesting food or drink contaminated by an infectious microbe (bacterium, virus, or protozoan) or a toxin (poison)

• Common cause of food poisoning is the toxin produced by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus

• Most types of food poisoning cause diarrhea and/or vomiting, often associated with abdominal pain

Bulimia

• A disorder that typically affects young, single, middle-class, white females

• Characterized by overeating at least twice a week followed by purging by self-induced vomiting, strict dieting or fasting, vigorous exercise, or use of laxatives or diuretics

• Occurs in response to fears of being overweight or to stress, depression, and physiological disorders such as hypothalamic tumors

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